Monday, January 13, 2020

Dr. Spock

When Babies are put on their stomach to sleep, the babies sleep soundly and get startled less. So for parents that haven't gotten sleep for days they tend to choose to put babies in this position because, finally they get to get some sleep. Parents do this of course taking precaution, buy not smoking keeping baby close by while sleeping and by breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics PAP recommends that babies should only be put on their stomachs during what they call â€Å"tummy time† while the child is up, alert and playing.The PAP also recommends to reduce the risk of KIDS parents should â€Å"Use a firm mattress (avoid soft bedding) Not letting your baby sleep in your bed. Breastfeeding your baby, if possible. Protecting your infant from exposure to cigarette, cigar, or pipe smoke. Running a fan in your baby's room at night to improve air circulation† (â€Å"Sleep†). The PAP only recommends baby to be put on their stomach only if the pediatrician rec ommends it or if â€Å"Infants with complications of severe spitting up (reflux)† (Children).The other disadvantage to putting baby to sleep on its back is that they can develop â€Å"philologically' a flattened head. DRP. Spook didn't recommend it, he said that it was â€Å"more comfortable with colic babies the pressure on the abdomen relieves the gas main, and if they vomit they're less likely to choke on their vomits† (Spook and Rottener 210). He also opposed it, because â€Å"babies tend to keep the head turned toward the same side, this may flatten that side of the head, this can be helped by putting the baby's head where the feet were the first time each time you put them to bed† (Spook and Rottener 211).An associate professor of neurosurgery and pediatrics in the New York University Medical Center DRP. Jeffrey H. Wisdom, said â€Å"that since the ‘Back to Sleep' campaign began, the head condition had become an epidemic. † Wisdom said  "now we see up to a dozen kids a week with asymmetric heads. â€Å"(Breaker). The Back to Sleep campaign which is driven by the PAP has been advocating to put children to sleep since 1992. DRP.Wisdom stated that â€Å"the PAP should do a better Job of telling parents to turn infants 180 degrees in their cribs occasionally and to place them on their stomachs while they are awake, called tummy time†(Breaker). Studies that have been conducted at the Boston Children's Hospital report, â€Å"that over the past two decades that infants who die suddenly, and without explanation whose death has been attributed to KIDS- have differences in brainstem chemistry that set them apart from infants dying of other causes† (â€Å"Brainstem†).They are stating that when these sleeping babies come upon danger, they are not able to wake themselves up to remove themselves from danger. Researchers say that â€Å"these abnormalities impair brainstem circuits that help control breathin g, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature control during sleep, this preventing sleeping babies from rousing when they reprobate too much carbon dioxide due to poor ventilation or become over heated due to over bundling† â€Å"Brainstem†).So with new information found on KIDS, researchers continue to advise parents to take necessary precautions, like not using soft-bedding, using a pacifier, good air ventilation and continue to put babies to sleep on their backs. Also in some circumstances there are still good reasons for putting babies to sleep on tummy due to reflux. The Interiors school approach has been acclaimed as the most developmentally appropriate model currently available. Maria Interiors first woman physician in Italy, began this scientific education for young children with developmental capabilities, she went on to use this for normal children. Experimenting over a period of years, she developed a large series of objects which required gradually increasi ng amounts of skill and maturity to manipulate, after a child mastered one skill, she was given the object that required the next greater amount of skill†(Spook and Rottener 516). There has been questions about the performance of Interiors students when they move on to conventional academic settings. Because there are not many Interiors schools that offer kindergarten to twelfth grade many students have to transfer to public school.This is where the issue begins some students have a hard time adjusting to the new learning environment where some excel and do well. Research done in Milwaukee where they â€Å"tracked 400 students where half the students received public school and the other Interiors before they transitioned to public schools system say that , Students who attended a Interiors school Preschool – Grade 5 and got Interiors education not only outperformed the other students in math and science test scores, but graduated with higher Gaps† (â€Å"Transit ioning†).The negative side of this is that when students enter public school â€Å"they may be behind or ahead of their new peers in certain subjects because of the self-guided study they did. Concepts will be taught differently, student will need to adapt to more traditional teaching methods†(â€Å"Transitioning†). On the other hand Interiors students enjoy social, emotional and academic benefits from their education, making them reliable. â€Å"Remember this is a child who has learned how to learn, where to find information on their own if they need it.They are accustomed to research and tackling new subjects† (â€Å"Quarter†). Many researchers along with parents believe that Interiors as a huge impact on children long after the child has left a Interiors school. Interiors schools differ from traditional school in several ways, â€Å"children are grouped in multi-age class room from three to six, six to nine, nine to twelve, twelve to fifteen, an d fifteen to eighteen† (Task). The age mix allows older students to be leaders, mentors and help teach lessons, younger kids get to experience working with older classmates.At the same time young students working next to older students get to see what they will be working on in the near future. The teachers work with dent's one on one or in small groups. They fuel the fire in the child's interest, â€Å"one teacher noted the children's hunger for words, and they wrote as many as they knew, and came to me for more, having exhausted their simple vocabulary' (Task). Interiors allows children to grow in their natural development guiding them as they grow into bigger lessons.After transferring to a traditional school is where the issue begins, â€Å"the goals and objectives follow the school's vision. â€Å"(Task) In traditional classrooms teachers have an assigned group of students and instruct students from assigned text books. Assessments, test, worksheets are given to studen ts to memorize and there is never a true learning experience. The traditional school has their own vision for learning, going along with the states standardized testing. Leaving the children no time for their own developmental learning to grow, leaving children behind and lost in the learning process.Discipline is an ongoing process. It begins early in a child's life and changes as they mature, continuing as self-discipline. DRP. Spook says, † that good parents who naturally lean toward strictness should raise their children that way. Moderate triteness-in the sense of requiring good manners, prompt obedience, orderliness- is not harmful to children so long as the parents are basically kind, and so long the children are growing up happy and friendly. But strictness is harmful when parents are overbearing for a child.This kind of severity produces children who are meek and colorless or mean to others. â€Å"(Spook and Rottener 25) The Bible also states â€Å"Fathers, do not b e so hard on your children, so their spirit may not be broken† (Bible N. I. V. Colombians 3:21). Expecting reasonable behavior from children means parents need o be kind, loving, moderately strict, flexible and have consistent expectations. If parents learn early on how to be firm and consistent, children will have an easier time getting along with people.Some studies show that parents who fear disciplining, have children who suffer from being â€Å"insecure and develop anxiety and stress when there is lack of consistent guidance. Children who do not learn appropriate boundaries when they are young experience difficulty with self-control later in life† (Brown). A parent's firmness trains the child to get along reasonable with there people, so when they get out into the world no matter at what age they won't be in for a surprise when others dislike them for their selfishness and won't go through life being unpopular.Spook's advice was not so different from the advice giv en now from many professionals. Especially, learning how to take care of children was so important for new families. That the schools parents choose was important for their children's learning development. And most of all how to raise children that are well-disciplined so that they will be self-controlled adults with good relationship skills.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Bus 311 Business Law Entire Course Material - 1611 Words

BUS 311 Business Law Entire Course Material Follow the link below to purchase Visit Website: Please contact us for more Tutorial amp; Help ( BUS 311 Week 1 DQ 1 Applying the Law to a Set of Facts Applying the Law to a Set of Facts. Read the Hypothetical Case Problem #1 at the end of Chapter 1 and respond to these questions 1. If Javier sued Energy-Auto Inc., identify who would be the plaintiff and the defendant. 2. In which state or states can the suit be brought? 3. Assume that Javier incurred $100,000 in damages. a) Analyze whether the suit can be brought in federal court b) Explain the†¦show more content†¦Apply the five essential elements of an enforceable contract to your example and answer the following questions. 1. Was the contract successfully fulfilled? 2. Was there a breach of the contract? 3. If so, what remedies were available? BUS 311 Week 2 Quiz BUS 311 Week 3 DQ 1 Employment at Will Employment-at Will. Should the law allow an employer to fire an employee without a good reason? Conduct research to provide examples to support your position and use your own personal employment experiences when possible. Have you observed situations where an employee was fired? Did the employer give a reason? Do you believe the employer’s actions were legal? BUS 311 Week 3 DQ 2 A Principal’s Responsibility for the Actions of Their Agent A Principal’s Responsibility for the Actions of Their Agent. Karen is shopping at Big Mart. She has with her an umbrella which is the same brand Big Mart carries. When a Big Mart employee, Steve, sees her leave with the umbrella without going through the checkout lane, he asks her to come back into the store. Steve says that he thinks Karen is shoplifting the umbrella. Karen tells him that she has had the umbrella for years and show s him marks of wear and tear. Steve apologizes and tells Karen she is free to go. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019

Pearl Harbor Ethical Dilemma - 1020 Words

President Truman has to make one of the hardest decisions of all time. He had to decide whether it was better to use a weapon of mass destruction, or let the war end on its own. Ultimately, his decisions to use the atomic bomb and end the war was the correct and most ethical decision. This decision was an ethical one because America gave the Japanese ample warning, it saved countless America lives, and it was payback for Pearl Harbor. First what made his decision ethical, Truman gave Japan ample warning time. As the Japanese knew they would be bombed in a few days, they immediately warned civilians to evacuate thirty-five cities. With that being said, for example, â€Å"About 1 million leaflets fell on the targeted cities whose names appeared†¦show more content†¦Truman couldn t release the lives of these individuals futile. I trust that the passing of these fighters settled on his choice to drop the bomb moral. Also, with all that being said, the losses from the U.S. key traditional besieging effort significantly obscured the quantity of people who passed on from the nuclear bombings. The March 1945 firebombing of Tokyo alone murdered exactly 120,000 Japanese. A ground intrusion would have brought about almost endless more setbacks. As one researcher who examined the U.S. attack arrange, Operation Downfall, notes: contingent upon how much Japanese regular people opposed the intrusion, gauges kept runnin g into the millions for Allied setbacks and several millions for Japanese losses(Keck, 2014, p. 1). That being stated, a solid case can be made that Operation Downfall, in any event as it was arranged, wouldn t have been important regardless of the possibility that the U.S. hadn t turned to atomic weapons. Specifically, the Soviet Union s choice to enter the Pacific War against Japan would have absolutely rushed Japan s surrender, and in this way spared lives. The nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gave Japanese pioneers the reason they expected to make the completely unbelievable move of surrendering. To be sure, the nuclear bombings figured unmistakably in Emperor Hirohito s remarkable discourse to the country declaring Japan s surrender. The adversary has startedShow MoreRelatedTruman s Greatest Moral Dilemma1126 Words   |  5 PagesRachel Green HIST-1302 Spring 2015 Truman’s Greatest Moral Dilemma President Harry S. Truman had a major ethical and moral dilemma in choosing whether or not to use the atomic bomb as a resolution to the war. This came with many advantages and disadvantages. We must consider several facts. President Truman was almost thrown upon the presidential role upon Roosevelt’s death. He was a reliable party man who was well liked by professional politicians. His inexperience and desire to please the AmericanRead MoreFdr Was An Unethical Leader1805 Words   |  8 Pagesdiscussed. Afterwards, the allegation that FDR was an unethical leader will be substantiated. Specifically, the attack on Pearl Harbor, the use of faulty logic, his ethical dilemma, and the internment of Japanese Americans will be scrutinized in order to reinforce the accusation. Finally, my personal relevance regarding my negative behavior and failure to overcome my ethical dilemma will also be examined. Visionary Leader FDR was a visionary leader because he was an inspirational motivator who putRead MoreJap A Nation Of Ancient Traditions And Little Contact With The Western World1197 Words   |  5 Pagesinvolved the Pacific and European theaters of war. Leading up to the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese, the Unites States were generally uninvolved in the war excluding minor complications between German and American warships and the attack on the U.S. Navy gunboat Panay by Japanese bi-planes. 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Col. James â€Å"Jimmy† Doolittle, a tremendous visionary leader, used the Full Range Leadership trait of Idealized Influence and the Team Dynamics traits of an Executor to successfully lead sixteen B-25 bombers to take off from an aircraft carrier to bomb Tokyo. Unfortunately, Doolittle was not an ethical leader in accomplishingRead MoreThe Outline Of The Second World War932 Words   |  4 Pagesfrom scientists, and particularly from his advisers Bush and Conant, that Nazi Germany was well on t he way to developing an atomic weapon, Stimson was alerted to the possibilities of the weapon on 6 November 1941, before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December propelled the United States into the Second World War. - For the Americans, who had consistently undervalued the extent and the variety of destruction of these weapons, the ruin, in a matter of minutes, of large, populous cities presentedRead MoreThe War Of The World War II1454 Words   |  6 Pagesinvestigate alternative plans that would benefit the cause without putting the U.S. directly in the war. Though the war began with Nazi Germany s attack on Poland in September 1939, the U.S. stayed neutral until a surprise attack from Japan on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 killing over 2,000 sailors and wounding 1,000 more. And though the Japanese thought the U.S. wouldn’t be able to build ships fast enough to continue to help Allies after the destruction, therefore allowing Germany to takeoverRead MoreThe United States Of America Elected A New President Essay1588 Words   |  7 Pagesthat can be created through compulsory obedience. This is not just vital to the work of the military but also creates important group dynamics that con tribute to its overall success. However, especially for an active soldier, obedience is an ethical dilemma. If they exert extreme obedience, they will at some point have to obey an authority that lacks important leadership characteristics like charisma or professional skills. Therefore, Lieutenant Colonel Wenker suggests that the soldier should makeRead MoreNuclear Weapons Are The Most Inhumane Weapons Invented1383 Words   |  6 PagesNuclear weapons cause the decimation of cities and prolonged death. In â€Å"Hiroshima† Berger, speaks of the destruction of Hiroshima a city in Japan on August 6th, 1945. In Hiroshima, an A-Bomb was dropped on this city by the Americans in retaliation to Pearl Harbor. The A-Bomb caused prolonged death as stated: â€Å"The latter included long, lingering deaths, radiation sickness, many fatal illnesses which developed later as a result of exposure to the bomb, and tragic genetical effects on generations yet to beRead More The Database Dilemma Essay3843 Words   |  16 PagesThe Database Dilemma Personal privacy today is a controversial and complex topic, which is influenced by a number of factors. There is an integral role that databases play in this highly debated topic. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

Patagonias Sustainability Strategy DonT Buy Our...

Consumption is a total idealistic practice that has little in common with the actual satisfaction of needs or the principle of reality as there is no moderate consumption at all. A consumer society is a set of relationships where the symbolism of material objects acting as the meaning of life dominates attracting consumers to acquire things and thereby grant themselves a certain status. The case study ‘Patagonia’s Sustainability Strategy: Don’t Buy Our Products’ prepared by Zahir Dossa discusses consumerism and the way Patagonia has decided to challenge this phenomenon. The case study emphasizes on negative waste impacts of consumerism on the environment providing justification why people should purchase only necessary things and protect†¦show more content†¦Both ideas have become popular among the consumers, which also supports the fact that Chouinard should continue challenging consumerism and encourage other businesses to do the same. The study of how Patagonia has managed to reduce the negative impacts of consumerism on the environment allows realizing that the organization should follow this path to continue fighting the negative consequences. In particular, Patagonia should study the way how materials are produced and processes that are involved in manufacturing regarding the negative impact on the environment. In the event of positive results, the company can post its findings in Footprint Chronicles on its website to make the information accessible for everyone and raise concerns regarding the issue. This tactic was already used by the management in 1996 during the transition from the conventional to organic cotton and the introduction of the Footprint Chronicles to standardize the approach (Dossa 3). Another effective company’s strategy is the allocation of 1% of sales or 10% of profits (whichever is greater) to environmental initiatives (Dossa 2). The funds have been used for charitable initiatives. At the same time, Patagonia has managed to adopt this practice so that other companies started following its example. The ‘1% for the Planet’

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Financial Accounting Research Detecting Asset Misappropriation

Question: Discus about the Detecting Asset Misappropriation. Answer: Article Summary On the basis of selected research article, it is summarized that, in the current time, business firms are facing a serious of financialaccounting issues and challenges that directly and indirectly reducing the firms profit, sales, revenue and decreasing reputation in the global business environment. In this research article, the author had explained that, today, corporate fraud is one of the major issue facing companies or firms. Moreover, fraud is also considered a major concern for all the regulators, inventors and external auditors. In addition to this, it is also suggested by the author that, misappropriation of assets within corporate environment is one of the major and common types of occupational fraud. It is also a most common ethical issue in the financial accounting. It is the all about the misuse of a companys assets. If the assets are used for any purpose than company interest, it would be called assets misappropriation (Kassem, 2014). At the same time, in this study, the author had summarized various types of fraud that negatively affect the success of a company. For case, it is explained by the author that, fraud may be internal and external fraud. Internal fraud is basically done and committed by the organizational people within the company. In contrast, the external fraud is the committed by the employees of a company outside the firms and such fraud includes investment fraud, customer fraud, vendors fraud, investors fraud. Hence, internal fraud is also called occupational fraud or corporate fraud. At the same time, the author had explained that, if anyone does misuse organizational assets or resource, it would be called misuse of assets or fraud (Johnson, and Rudesill, 2001). At the same time, the author had classified the types and main categories of fraud such as: financial reporting fraud, asset misappropriation, corruption etc. Additionally, it is suggested by the author that, the internal frauds comes before the external fraud and this is one of the most common and frequent types of fraud. Moreover, it is also suggested that, in order to deal with such fraud, the auditors of the company should examine the factors that are responsible for the fraud. In this study, the author had also discussed and explained the major duties, responsibilities and role of an auditor in dealing with such fraud issues. Apart from this, in order to understand the impact, types and concepts of internal and external fraud, the author had analyzed and discussed the case of Egypt in his study. In the same way, in this study, the researcher had explained and analyzed various categories of the misappropriation of assets and provided suggestion about how to control such issues (Hogan, Rezaee, Riley, and Velury, 2008). For case, it is explained by the researcher in the study that, misappropriation is an illegal and unethical act of stea ling an asset of a company for personal use at the companys expense or misuse of a companys resources. Additionally, several causes of asset misappropriation are discussed and summarized in this article by the author. Finally, the author had critically proposed framework of detecting asset misappropriation (Kassem, and Higson, 2012). Analysis/Critique Strengths of Published Article: The major strength of the research article is that, it provides a clear description about the various types of financialaccounting issues. This study is providing information about the types of fraud, categories of asset misappropriation. This research article is also directly related with the financialaccounting issues such as: misappropriation of assets (Srivastava, Mock, and Turner, 2009). This research article examines various areas of asset misappropriation that had never been examined and this could be used for the further research (Wells, 2004). This study is also more valuable and significant for the readers in understanding the nature of frauds and their classification. This research/publish articles suggests a specific framework that could be used by the external auditor in order to deal with the financial accounting issues. The author used literature, questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview to conduct the study that is important in addressing the research question and solve the research problem (Dahawy, Shehata, and Ransopher, 2010). Weaknesses of the Published Article: The main weaknesses of the published article are listed as below: In this study, the author had mainly focused on secondary method of data collection by ignoring the primary method of data collection Lack of graphical representation of information is also a major weakness of the study The study indicates that there are no clear research questions, research objectives and research gaps in the study that affected the outcomes of the study (Wells, 2004). In the research, the researcher had used more complicated sampling techniques to collect the sample No statistical and mathematical models of financial accounting are used to present the study by the author that is main limitation of the study conducted by the author (Pedneault, 2004). Implications to the Accounting Profession: The research done by the author has several implications for the Accounting profession. For case, the study could be used by the accountants, auditors and financial managers in order to understand and analyze the nature, types, classification, concepts related to red flags, fraud detection techniques, occupational fraud, audit procedures, audit expectation gap, audit quality, audit risk etc (Shelton, Whittington, and Landsittel, 2001). In addition, this, the accounting professional could also understand the impact of fraud not only on the firms performance but also on the individual performance. Moreover, the auditors could also understand their roles and functions in avoiding of different kinds of frauds. For instance, this research study is provide a clear direction to the people related to the accounting profession that what are the major causes that are responsible for the fraud in the organizations (Srivastava, Mock, and Turner, 2009). Furthermore, this study is also provides opportunity to the accountants or auditors about how to follow specific process to avoid fraud. On the other hand, the accounting people would also be able to understand and analyze the current financial accounting issues that faced by the business firms and their negative impact on the firms reputation as well as productivity. In the same way, the accounting people would be able to understand the financial accounting concepts, issues, problems. Along with this, this study can also help the internal and external auditors in understanding their roles and functions in maintaining the audit quality by using several audit process, methods and techniques (Pedneault, 2004). Relevance to the Unit Financial Accounting Theory: The research study conducted by the researcher is directly related to the course unit of financial accounting theory. During the study of course, it is studied that, there are various types of fraud exits within a company that create serious issues in the front of the companies. Moreover, it is also studied during the course work that, various specific and dynamic fraud detection techniques could be used by the auditor or company to deduct the fraud (Wells, 2005). In addition to this, it is also important to know that, the nature and categories of asset misappropriation aspect of the research article is directly related with the core unit financial accounting theory. For instance, at the time of classroom session, it is studied that frauds may be different in the nature and impact (Wells, 2004). Additionally, all the types of frauds have negative impact on the organizational financial situation and create a lot of challenges in the front of companies. Data analysis and research results part of the research article is also relevant with the unit. For case, it is acknowledged that, there are several methods and techniques could be adopted by a company in order to deal with the fraud issues (Johnson, and Rudesill, 2001). Finally, the Red flag for skimming schemes addressed in the article is also related with the course unit. During the classroom studies, different types of skimming schemes are learned. Recommendation On the basis of above discussion, it can be recommended that, the auditors/researcher should use primary method properly and effectively to collect the fresh, real and accurate information in order to fulfill the aims and objectives of the study. Additionally, it can also be said that, the researcher should conduct the study through the mixed research method (primary and secondary). Moreover, the researcher should also design research questions, research problems and research objectives separately in order to reach valid outcomes (Srivastava, Mock, and Turner, 2009). On the other hand, the researcher should also identify the gaps in the research. Finally, the researcher must also adopt statistical and mathematical models to test the study. Overall, the researcher should adopt the suggested methodologies in order to avoid above identified weaknesses. Conclusion On the basis of above discussion, it can be concluded that, this research study provides detailed summary of the article that improve understanding about the issues of financial accounting and their impact on firms performance. At the same time, it is also concluded that, there are several strengths and weaknesses of the research article that would provide description about the major objective of the study. Moreover, the implication of the article with regards to the Accounting Profession is also analyzed to fulfill the aims of the study. Finally, it can be concluded that, the selected research article is related to the unit such as: Financial Accounting Theory. Finally, this research study provides recommendations to overcome the issues related to financial accounting. References Dahawy, K., Shehata, N.F. and Ransopher, T. (2010). The state of accounting in Egypt: a case, Journal of Business Cases and Applications, 1(3), pp.112. Hogan, C.E., Rezaee, Z., Riley, R. and Velury, U.K. (2008). Financial statement fraud: insights from the academic literature, Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory, 27( 2), pp.231252. Johnson, G.G. and Rudesill, C.L. (2001). An investigation into fraud prevention and detection of small businesses in the United States: responsibilities of auditors, managers, and business owners, Accounting Forum, 25(1), pp. 14-75. Kassem, R. (2014). Detecting asset misappropriation: a framework for external auditors. International Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Performance Evaluation (IJAAPE), 10(1), pp. 1-42. Kassem, R. and Higson, A.W. (2012). Financial reporting fraud: are external auditors and standards setters doing enough?, International Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3(19), pp.283290. Pedneault, S.A. (2004). Yes, auditors can stop fraud, if they know what to look for, White Collar Crime Fighter, 6(8), pp.13. Shelton, S.W., Whittington, O.R. and Landsittel, D. (2001). Auditing firms fraud risk assessment practices. Accounting Horizons, 15(1), pp.1933. Srivastava, R.P., Mock, T.J. and Turner, J.L. (2009). Bayesian fraud risk formula for financial statement audits, Abacus. A Journal of Accounting, Finance, and Business Studies, 45(1), pp. 6680. Wells, J.T. (2005). Principles of Fraud Examination. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Wells, J.T. (2004). Occupational Fraud and Abuse. Australia: Obsidian Publishing.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Triangular Theory of Love Essay Example

Triangular Theory of Love Essay Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID, USA Stembergs Triangular Theory of Love was examined to identify the structure of the psyche implied in that theory, Stembergs theory posits three components of human functioning to explain the phenomenon of love in close relationships: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Analysis of these three components indicates that they align with a neoclassical model of the human psyche, A neoclassical psyche consists of at least three fundamental, irreducible capacities: cognition, affect, and conation, Stembergs commitment component relies on the capacity for cognition (and conation), the passion component is derived from conation (and affect), and the intimacy component is derived from emotional investment or the capacity for affect (and cognition). Therefore, Stembergs overall Triangular Theory of Love ontologically presupposes a neoclassical structure to the psyche. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure of the human psyche that is implied in Stembergs Triangular Theory of Love, with its three nodes of intimacy, passion, and commitment. Therefore the authors of this paper aimed to answer the question, What must be the structure of the psyche in order for love to consist of intimacy, passion and commitment? The central hypothesis in this paper is that the structure of the psyche, implied in Stembergs work, is a neoclassical psyche, a psyche that consists of at least these three fundamental, irreducible, capacities: a) cognition, b) affect, and c) conation (Hilgard, 1980; LeDoux, 2002; Tallon, 1997). Rhett Diessner, Professor of Psychology and Education, Nellie Frost and Titus Smith, Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID, USA, Appreciation is due to eviewers including: Robert Lemieux, PhD, McDaniel College, Com munication Department, 2 College Hill, Westminster, MD, USA 21157, Email: ; Ge Gao, PhD, Department of Communication Studies, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192, USA, Email: Keywords: Stemberg, psyche, love, cognition, conation. Please address correspondence and reprint requests to: Rhett Diessner, Professor of Psychology and Education, 500 8th Ave,, Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID 83501-2698, USA. Phone: 208 792 2338; Fax: 208 792 2820; Email: 683 684 PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE We will write a custom essay sample on Triangular Theory of Love specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Triangular Theory of Love specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Triangular Theory of Love specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A SUMMARY OF STERNBERGS TRIANGULAR THEORY OF LOVE The triangular theory of love is so called because it holds that love can be understood in terms of three components that together can be viewed as forming the vertices of a triangle: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment (Stemberg, 1986). Stemberg grounds this theory historically and rationally (1988, 1998; Beall Stemberg, 1995) as well as psychometrically and empirically (Acker Davis, 1992; Chojnacki Walsh, 1990; Lemieux Hale, 1999; Stemberg, 1997; Stemberg Grajek, 1984; Whitley, 1993). According to Stemberg (1986, 1988, 1997) the intimacy component refers to a sense of bonding and close, connected feelings in loving relationships. Thus this component focuses on the emotions that comprise the experience of warmth in a loving relationship. Stemberg and Grajeks (1984) cluster analysis of various love scales indicated that intimacy included such factors as desire to promote the beloveds welfare, sharing with the beloved, mutual understanding, high regard and intimate communication. In general, the intimacy component might be viewed as largely, but not exclusively, deriving from emotional investment in the relationship (Stemberg, 1986, p. 119). The triangular theorys passion component refers to the drives that lead to romance, physical attraction, sexual consummation, and the like in a loving relationship (Stemberg, 1988, p. 118). Stemberg focuses on sexual desire as central to this component, but he also acknowledges that a variety of needs, ranging from self-actualiza tion to self-esteem to dominance/submission are likely to influence passion. In particular, Stemberg considers that the passion component is largely but not exclusively derived from motivational involvement in the relationship (1986, p. 19). The decision/commitment component is structured temporally and consists of two facets, one in the present and one in the future (Stemberg, 1986,1988,1997). In present time (the short term) the issue is the decision to love someone or not. In regard to future time (the long term) the issue is to maintain commitment to the beloved. Stemberg (1986), at least in his early work on this theory, considered that the decision/commitment component was cognitive in nature, stating that this component thus includes within its purview the cognitive elements that are involved (p. 19) in making a decision to be in, and to stay in, a loving relationship. Based on these three components of love, eight possible types of love come into focus, creating a classifi cation system for the various kinds of love relationships (Stemberg, 1986,1988). A liking type of love is intimacy without passion or commitment; infatuation is passion without intimacy or commitment; empty love is commitment without passion or intimacy; romantic love is a combination of intimacy and passion sans commitment; companionate love results from intimacy combined with commitment but PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE 685 ithout passion; fatuous (stupid) love is the combination of passion and commitment but lacking intimacy; consummate love comes from all three components being active in the relationship; and nonlove is when all three components are absent. A NEOCLASSICAL PSYCHE The psyche that underlies Sternbergs model is aptly referred to as a neoclassical psyche, as it is reminiscent of the psyche as described by Socrates in Platos The Republic (380BCE/1937), Book IV. Socrates explained that the psyche consists of three parts: the logical-rational (logiston), the spiri ted or affective (thymia), and the desiring (epithymia). This description of the psyche is also neoclassical in relation to the psychology of the medieval period, among both Christian and Islamic scholars. Thomas Aquinas, the Scholastics (Tallon, 1997), ibn Sinl (Avicenna), and ibn Arabi (Leahey, 2000), all wrote extensively on the capacities of the psyche or mind to know (cognition), to love (and other emotions) and to will (conation). Those medieval Christian and Islamic scholars, however, did not specifically consider the structure of the psyche to be based on the three capacities of cognition, affect and conation; yet, Immanuel Kant often considered the greatest modem philosopher did. He wrote in his Critique of Judgment, There are three absolutely irreducible faculties of the mind, namely, knowledge, feeling, and desire (cited in Hilgard, 1980, p. 109). And despite behaviorisms reign throughout much of the 20th century in which the concept of the psyche, and particularly the will were banished and despite the current emphasis in the discipline of psychology upon cognition, many psychologists have continued to frame the structure of the psyche in terms of these three capacities. Particularly in social psychological research, regarding the concept of attitude, psychologists posit this triadic psyche (Fishbein Ajzen, 1975; Kothandapani, 1971; Ostrom, 1969), as well as in general reviews of the history of psychology and studies of the mind (Hilgard, 1980; Insko Schopler, 1967; Plooij, 2003), or in educational psychology (Diessner, 2001; Snow, Como Jackson, 1996). Likewise, in the study of religion/spirituality and psychology this triadic psyche surfaces, ranging from studies by Christian psychologists (Kristensen, Pedersen, Williams, 2001; Pedersen, WiUiams, Kristensen, 2000; Tallon, 1997) to that of Bahdi psychologists (Danesh, 1997; MustakovaPossardt, 2003). Even in the explicitly hard science of biological psychology, the neoclassical psyche is posited. LeDoux (2002), in his Synaptic self, states that Traditionally . . . the mind has been viewed as a trilogy, consisting of cognition, affect (emotion), and conation (motivation) (p. 4; NB, LeDoux is emphasizing the willful and volitional aspect of motivation). Thus, a neoclassical psyche has its roots in the works of Plato; the elements of it are discussed throughout the writings of medieval Christian and Islamic psy- 686 PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE chologically oriented philosophers; it is affirmed by Immanuel Kants enlightenment philosophy; and continues to be a force in contempo rary psychology. THE NEOCLASSICAL PSYCHE IMPLICIT IN STERNBERGS MODEL As mentioned above, a neoclassical psyche is an integration of the three quasidiscrete fundamental psychological capacities of cognition (knowing), affect (emoting) and conation (volition, will). In the next three subsections we briefly explicate the hypotheses that Stembergs description of intimacy is primarily undergirded by the capacity to emote; that his defmition of passion is primarily a motivational experience and thus based on the conative ability; and that decision/commitment, in Stembergs model, is at least partially derived from the capacity for cognition. Of course, the three fundamental human capacities of cognition, affect and conation are only quasi-discrete. That is, they are qualitatively different capacities, but nonetheless in human phenomenology they are always in interaction with each other, and it seems unlikely that any human experience is one of pure cognition with no affect, or that we have a pure conative experience with no immediate influence from affect or cognition (Danesh, 1997; LeDoux, 2002; Mustakova-Possardt, 2003; Tallon, 1997). For example, Bandura (1986) captures this discrete-but-interactive notion with his concept of reciprocal determinism. And just as Socrates model of the psyche implies logiston, thymia and epithymia as inherently interactive (Plato, 1937), and Freuds model of the psyche is explicit about ego, id, and superego being dynamically interactive, Stemberg also emphasizes that the important thing to remember is that the triangles are not independent but interactive (1988, p. 136; cf. Acker Davis , 1992; Lemieux Hale, 2000). Intimacy and Affect Stembergs defmition of intimacy emphasizes feelings, the . . . close, connected, and bonded feelings in loving relationships (1986, p. 120). Clearly, this component of love relies on the psyches capacity for affect. In terms of interaction, intimacy also is dependent on the interaction of the psyches capacities for cognition and affect, in at least two ways. Firstly, the emotional sharing and mutual understanding that characterizes intimacy requires cognition of the beloveds emotions, and understanding of the other is also dependent on cognition of the beloveds thoughts and behaviors. That is, the understanding of the other that intimacy requires, is dependent on interpersonal cognition, or what Gardner (1999) would call interpersonal intelligence. Secondly, cognition is intimately bound to affect in the sense that cognitions tend to precede emotions, and some psychologists of emotion actually consider cognition as partially constitutive of emotion itself (Amold, 1960; Lazarus, 1991). PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE 687 Passion and Conation To the degree that human conation, or the human will, is defined as desire (cf . Platos epithymia, 1937) and as motivation (Lazarus, 1991; LeDoux, 2002; Snow Jackson, 1994) then Stembergs passion component is an expression of the psyches fundamental capacity for conation. Stemberg has emphasized that the passion component is derived largely, but not exclusively, from motivational processes (1986, p. 119; and see also 1997), and psychologists tend either to identify conation with motivation, or at least to consider motivation as one aspect of conation (Lazarus; LeDoux; Snow Jackson). Of course passion is passionately integrated with affect and cognition. The everyday woman or man-on-the-street associates passion with affect, with very strong feelings. We tend to think of a passion as happening to us and being reflected in our affective state (see Averill, 1980). And there appears to be no passion without an object of passion; and cognition is necessary for us to behold that object of passion in our consciousness. Decision/Commitment and Cognition (and Conation) In Stembergs early work (1986) on his triangular love theory he associated cognition with decision/commitment in love: The decision/commitment component is derived largely, although not exclusively, from cognitive decision in and commitment to the relationship (p. 119). In his later work (e. g. 1997) on the theory, he does not explicitly mention cognition in regard to this component, nor affect nor conation. Granted, cognitions are likely to precede decisions and commitment, and are intimately and inextricably bound to them, just as many cognitive psychologists consider that cognitions either precede emotional experience, or are partially constitutive of emotional experience. However, decisions and commitments seem more likely to be derived from the psyches capacity for conation. That is, decisions and commitments are choices, they are acts of the will, they are volitional. This position is strongly supported by humanistic psychology (Maslow, 1954; Rogers, 1961), that is, self-actualization primarily occurs through acts of the will, through decisions and commitments that are acts of conation. This view that our choices, decisions and commitments are acts of the will is also emphasized in the emerging positive psychology (Seligman, 2002, see pp. 135-6). Therefore, it seems that the decision/commitment component of Stembergs theory is primarily an expression of the psyches capacity for conation, although integrated with and influenced by human cognition. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION We conclude that the central hypothesis in this paper, that the structure of the psyche implied in Stembergs work is a neoclassical psyche, has been plausibly 688 PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE supported in the above analysis. We have demonstrated that the three components of the triangular theory of love are indeed substantially constituted by the capacities of cognition, affect, and conation; and we reviewed the work of psychologists and philosophers who advocate that the human mind or psyche is constituted by those three capacities. Seeking Disconfirmation What would disconfirm the findings of this analysis? Our hypothesis would be partially disconfiimed if it were shown that intimacy or passion or decision/commitment, as described by Stemberg, were expressions of the human psyche that cannot be accounted for by cognition, affect and/or conation. This is an open question, and we invite criticism in this regard. The methodology of our analysis would be called into question if we misinterpreted the views of Socrates, Hilgard (1980), LeDoux (2002), and others that the psyche is constituted by the three fundamental capacities of cognition, affect, and conation. The meaningfulness of our hypothesis, in regard to the notion of a neoclassical psyche would be in question if there were other capacities of the human psyche that are fundamental to cognition or affect or conation, or if there were other fundamental capacities that are parallel to cognition, affect and conation. We invite discussion in this regard. Of course, postmodernists and deconstructionists would shudder at our use of the phrase structure of the psyche, and point out this is a Western-centric and arbitrary view of the capacities of the human being. Postmodernists have been delightfully helpful in reminding writers of their various privileged positions, of combating racism and sexism, and of keeping our minds open. But we might be tempted to point out that when they shudder, they are experiencing affect; and that the shuddering was caused by their cognition of our use of the concepts of structure and psyche; and that their decision to criticize was an act of conation. REFERENCES Acker, M. , Davis, M. H. (1992). Intimacy, passion and commitment in adult romantic relationships: A test of the triangular theory of love. Journal of Social Personal Relationships, 9(1), 21-50. Arnold, M. (1960). Emotion and personality: Vol. I. Psychological aspects. NY: Columbia University Press. Averill, J. R. (1980). A constructivist view of emotion. In R. Plutchik H. Kellerman (Eds. ), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience. Vol. 1 (pp. 305-339). New York: Academic Press. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. EnglewoodCliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Beall, A. E. , Stemberg, R. J. (1995). The social construction of love. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12, 417-438. Chojnacki, J. T. , Walsh, W. B. (1990). Reliability and concurrent validity of the Stemberg triangular love scale. Psychological Reports, 67(1), 219-224. Danesh, H. (1997). The psychology of spirituality. From divided to integrated self. Wienacht, Switzerland and Hong Kong: Landegg Academy Press and Juxta Publishing. PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE 689 Diessner, R. (2001), Foundations of educational psychology: Howard Gardners neo-classical psyche. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 162,495-501. Fishbein, M. , Ajzen, I, (1975), Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Gardner, H, (1999), Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books. Hilgard, E, (1980), The trilogy of mind: Cognition, affection, and conation. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16, 107-117. Insko, C, A. , Schopler, J. (1967). Triadic consistency: A statement of affective-cognitive-conative consistency. Psychological Review, 74, 361-76. Kothandapani, V. (1971). Validation of feeling, belief, and intention to act as three components of attitude and their contribution to prediction of contraceptive behavior. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 19, 321-333. Kristensen, K, B,, Pedersen, D, M,, Williams, R, N, (2001), Profiling religious maturity: The relationship of religious attitude components to religious orientations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40, 75-87, Lazarus, R, S, (1991), Progress on the cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, American Psychologist, 46, 819-834, Leahey, T, H, (2000), A history of psychology (5th ed,). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. LeDoux, J. (2002), Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. NY: Penguin Books. Lemieux, R. , Hale, J, L, (1999), Intimacy, passion and commitment in young romantic relationships: Successfully measuring the triangular theory of love. Psychological Reports, 85(2), 497-503, Lemieux, R,, Hale, J, L, (2000), Intimacy, passion and commitment among married individuals: Further testing of the triangular theory of love. Psychological Reports, 87, 941-948, Maslow, A, (1954/1987), Motivation and personality (3rd ed,). NY: Harper Row. Mustakova-Possardt, E, (2003), Critical consciousness: A study of morality in global, historical context. Westport, CT: Greenwood/Praeger, Ostrom, T, M, (1969), The relationship between the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of attitude. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, S, 12-30. Pedersen, D. M,, Williams, R, N,, Kristensen, K, B, (2000), The relation of spiritual self-identity to rehgious orientations and attitudes. Journal of Psychology Theology, 28, 138-148, Plato (1937/380 BCE), The dialogues of Plato (B, Jowett, Trans,), NY: Random House, Plooij, F, X, (2003), The trilogy of mind. In M, Heimann (Ed,), Regression periods in human infancy (pp, 185-205). Malwah, NJ: Erlbaum, Rogers, C, R, (1961), On becoming a person. New York: Harper Row. Seligman, M, (2002), Authentic happiness. New York: Free Press, Snow, R, E. , Jackson, D, N,, HI. (1994). Individual differences in conation: Selected constructs and measures. In H. F. ONeill, Jr. , M, Drillings (Eds,), Motivation: Theory and research (pp, 7199), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, Snow, R, E,, Como, L. , Jackson D. N. , HI, (1996). Individual differences in affective and conative functions. In D, C, Berliner R, C, Calfee (Eds,), Handbook of educational psychology (pp, 243310), New York: Macmillan, Stemberg, R, J, (1986). A triangular theory of love. Psychological Review, 93, 119-135. Stemberg, R. J, (1988), Triangulating love. In R, J, Stemberg M, L, Bames (Eds. ), The psychology of love (pp. 119-138). London: Yale University Press. Stemberg, R. J. (1997). Construct validation of a triangular love scale. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27(3), 313-335, 690 PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE Stemberg, R. J. (1998). Cupids arrow: The course of love through time. New York: Cambridge University Press. Stemberg, R. J. , Grajek, S. (1984). The nature of love. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 47(2), 312-329. Tallon, A. (1997). Head and heart: Affection, cognition, volition

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Alphonse Capone Essays - Five Points Gang, The Untouchables

Alphonse Capone Essays - Five Points Gang, The Untouchables Alphonse Capone Alphonse Capone Born 1/17/1899, Brooklyn Died 1/25/1947, Florida Al Capone is one of the most recognized names in American history. Alphonse was born to Neapolitan immigrants Gabriel and Teresa. His surname, originally Caponi, had been Americanized to Capone. The Capone family included James, Ralph, Salvatore (Frank), Alphonse, John, Albert, Matthew, Rose and Mafalda. Capone was proud to be an American I'm no Italian. I was born in Brooklyn, he often said. Al went to school with Salvatore Lucania, later known as Lucky Luciano. At about the age of ten he began to follow up-and-coming gangster Johnny Torrio, also a Neapolitan. At fourteen he quit school after striking a teacher. Capone and Lucky Luciano joined a gang known as the Five Pointers, on Manhattan's Lower East Side. Capone worked for Frank Yale, president of the Unione Siciliane, as a bouncer and bartender. One night he made a remark about the sister of Frank Galluciano, and Galluciano slashed Capone's face with a pocket knife, leaving three large scars on the left side of his face. For much of his criminal career, newspapers would call Capone by the hated name Scarface. Incredibly, Capone choose to forgive Galluciano and, years later, hired him as a bodyguard. Johnny Torrio had moved to Chicago to work for his uncle, Big Jim Colosimo. Torrio sent for his trusted lieutenant, Capone. Suspected of two murders, Capone was eager to leave New York. Capone worked under Torrio as a bouncer and thug. On May 11, 1920, Big Jim Colosimo was assassinated in his own cafe by an unknown killer. Johnny Torrio was now the leader of the most powerful gang in Chicago, and Capone his right-hand man. Torrio imposed a peace treaty on the other gangs, which lasted until the O'Banion-Genna war. Torrio was shot by O'Banion men in reprisal for O'Banion's slaying. He survived, barely. Before retiring to Italy, Torrio turned over leadership of his gang to Capone. Jen3 The Di Vito monument, a short distance east of the Bishops' mausoleum, features busts of Mr. and Mrs. Di Vito in shallow alcoves. The Ionic columns on the side are partially covered with clinging vines. Jen4 Mount Carmel is one of Chicago's finest graveyards. It is located in west suburban Hillside, across the street from Queen of Heaven. Mt Carmel is the oldest Catholic cemetery in the western part of the Archdiocese of Chicago. The vast majority of persons buried here are Italian. Italian traditions include statuary, and photographs on the monument, and private mausoleums. There are over 400 private family mausoleums in Mt. Carmel, more than any other cemetery in the area. Italian immigrants in Chicago preserved their culture, and Mount Carmel has a wonderful Old-World feel. The most popular attraction is the Bishops' mausoleum, which received over 50,000 visitors in the two months after the death of Cardinal Bernardin in October 1996. But to many, Mt. Carmel is equally famous for the graves of Chicago's notorious gangsters of the 1920s - including Al Capone, best known of them all. Bibliography I really cant say anything