Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Use your critical thinking skills to evaluate the article Why Does Our Essay

Use your critical thinking skills to evaluate the article Why Does Our Collective Empathy So Often Fail to Manifest in Our Treatment of Refugees by Shami Chakrabarti - Essay Example The Council for At-Risk Academics (CARA) created to deal with academic related violence and persecution has dealt with numerous cases involving refugees. CARA has had to help a physics teacher of Iraqi origin who used to receive death threats after she had dared to challenge the in place religious beliefs. Another incident dealt with by CARA, which shows that people do not care about the refugees, is the case of a human rights lecture from Zimbabwe whom the state police thoroughly beat due to his so-called political activism. Chakrabarti does not understand why people treat refugees with much contempt and ignorance even when they are aware of their sad struggle stories. One of the likely reasons suggested by Chakrabarti as to why people forget these sad refugee stories is due to the emotional distance that exists between refugees and people of the country, and this makes people forget these sad refugee stories. Chakrabarti in the article suggests that the government has let these refugees down, and the work of taking care of refugees has been left to organizations such as CARA. According to Chakrabarti, the government’s main task is to enforce grinding poverty to refugees, which has been possible because people allow them. The government’s reluctance and bad policies intended to help refugees can be best illustrated by the case of a Pakistani woman who fled to the United Kingdom after been physically attacked by her husband for the mere wish of wanting to finish her Ph.D. On arriving in the UK, the woman did not have a home or something to eat until CARA came to her rescue. Due to CARA’s limited resources that they have, the issue of dealing with refugees is overwhelming them. It is up to people of goodwill who appreciate the vital and useful work CARA does take up the responsibility of supporting the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Bmw’s Dream Factory and Culture Essay Example for Free

Bmw’s Dream Factory and Culture Essay The culture at BMW is an entrepreneurial culture which emphasizes creativity, risk taking and the bottom-up system of freewheeling ideas. The top-down management style is popular in Germany but not at the BMW. As soon as associates start working at the BMW, they will have the sense of the place, history and the mission of the company. BMW creates a working environment that promotes easier communications between leaders and employees. Every employee can contribute his or her ideas and creations via either formal or informal ways. For example, an employee sees his or her supervisor by chance on the way to lunch, he/she can tell this person of the idea which has just happened in his/her mind. More importantly, their voices and their ideas are heard, welcomed and brought into discussions and consideration. As a result, a car from BMW is often a production of thousands of impromptu brainstorming sessions. Furthermore, BMW cares for the benefits of its employees. It includes all employees in profit sharing. It has a plan that distributes as much as one and a half months’ extra pay at the end of the year to employees. The company also provides a high level of job security for its employees. Lastly, BMW also focuses on high-quality but practical products which meet the demand of consumers and are highly competitive with other auto producers. The company’s near-failure from producing impractical and expensive cars during the postwar time in 1959 was a big lesson for them. This near-failure is always retold and mentioned in all new orientations for the new associates. It helps to remind all employees at BMW of a lesson learned for the company in developing its plans in the future and ensuring that kind of mistake should never happen again. 2. Discuss the model of leadership illustrated at BMW. The model of leadership illustrated at BMW is the consideration model of leadership. The leaders at BMW have close relationships with subordinates that are based on mutual trust, two-way and open communications, and respect for employees’ ideas. The managers at BMW must stay humble and work closely with subordinates and their peers. The Leipzig factory, which looks like an art museum, is a very creative working environment that can make the communications between managers and employees easier. Managers at BMW are the ones who know to make the right questions to ask their subordinates, not the ones who have all the right answers. They also emphasize the satisfaction of their employees’ needs and provide as many benefits to their employees as possible. They are approachable and always willing to listen to their employees. They think if the employees are well motivated, better cars will be produced. . Discuss how the leadership model contributes to the culture. The leadership model at BMW shortens the distance between leaders and subordinates. The relationships between them are built on mutual trust. Employees can feel free to raise their innovative ideas to their managers anytime and anywhere. When the employees see that their voice is heard, they are more encouraged to talk. Moreover, the company cares for the employees’ benefits. In return, the employees are very flexible to contribute their best for the company. The employees do not mind working temporarily for months in another work location which requires them to be far away from their family. They are willing to work for extra hours without being concerned about overtime. In summary, the leadership model at BMW has made it such a culture that is quite distinct from other German companies. 4. Discuss why employees derive high job satisfaction at BMW. The employees of BMW derive high job satisfaction because their benefits are well cared of, their voice is heard and their hard work is highly appreciated. Also, their job security at BMW is high. Any employees, regardless of what grade they are, can contribute their ideas and their innovations to the company’s managers easily. There are no complicated, formal processes or procedures required to send their ideas to their management teams. Furthermore, when the company gets more profits, the employees will also be more benefited. Good working environment is developed and paid attention to. In conclusion, BMW’s employees are highly motivated so they are satisfied and willing to contribute more to the development of the company.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

journalism Essay -- essays research papers fc

In old days men had the rack. Now they have the press. That is an improvement certainly. But still it is very bad, and wrong, and demoralising. Somebody - was it Burke? - called journalism the fourth estate. That was true at the time, no doubt. But at the present moment it really is the only estate. It has eaten up the other three. The Lords Temporal say nothing, the Lords Spiritual have nothing to say, and the House of Commons has nothing to say and says it. We are dominated by Journalism. The Soul of Man - Oscar Wilde Feudal society was traditionally divided into three "estates" (social classes). The "First Estate" was the Church (clergy - those who prayed). The "Second Estate" was the Nobility (those who fought - knights). It was common for aristocrats to enter the Church and thus shift from the second to the first estate. The "Third Estate" was the Peasantry (everyone else, at least under feudalism: those who produced the food which supported those who prayed and those who fought, the members of the First and Second Estates). These "estates" are defined primarily by what one does (as well as by the social class one is born into). The term 'fourth estate' is used today to refer to the mass media as a powerful watchdog in liberal democracy, revealing abuses of state authority and defending the democratic rights of citizens. The notion that the press is a great instrument of liberty providing a check on the abuse of government power – any power - is a central part of any political culture. "If people don't know about power and let their attention wander completely then those in power will take liberties". Andrew Marr, BBC's political editor Former editor of The Independent The main role of the press is to ensure transparency and accountability in the government’s dealings. The publisher of a newspaper is most often also the owner and is the papers top manager. If a chain or a large corporation owns the paper, the publisher represents the owner’s interests and ensures the business’s profitability. According to the News Writers Handbook, the owner’s opinion about the news of the day is usually echoed by the editorial page editor on the editorial page and on the op- ed page opposite the editorial. It is common for the editorial page editor to report directly to the publisher, and not the paper... ...t. The education editor reviews books and other education material that is to be used by students. "Perhaps the most urgent--and complex--task facing American education today is to figure out how to hold schools accountable for improved academic achievement. In this important new work, Helen Ladd†¦.. this book should be at the top of the reading list for anyone seriously interested in transforming the quality of American schools." Edward B. Fiske, Education Editor, The New York Times All the editors work together to produce a newsworthy newspaper. The sit in the newsroom and deliberate of the ethical principles and legal ramifications of running certain stories. They act as a checking system on one another and so help in upholding the philosophies of categorical imperative, hedonism, veil of ignorance, golden rule, golden mean and utilitatianism for the good of the newspaper and the greater good of the public. BIBLIOGRAPHY Rudin, Richard and Ibbotson, Trevor, Introduction to Journalism. Focal Press, 2002. Keeble, Richard Newspapers’ Handbook( Media Practices) Routledge, 1998. Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists. Routledge: Taylor and Francis Books Lt, 2001

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Promote and implement health and safety in health and social care

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is responsible for regulating health and safety at work. This is done by a code of practice for employers, employees and visitors in order to prevent illness and accidents. The legislation that best relates to health or social care work setting is The Health and Safety Act Work Act 1974. This legislation best describes the work that employer and employees have to follow and provide. The health and safety and security of employers and its visitors must be protected. In order to follow up this legislation, the employer has to draw up health and safety policy and procedures and must be followed according to the legislation. The employer has to provide a safe work place, safe access to and from place of work, a risk assessment of potential a hazard and health and safety training as well as information on health and safety. The points of health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer are as follows: To secure the health, safety and welfare of people at work To protect others from risks arising from the activities of people at work †¢ To control the use and storage of dangerous substances †¢ To control the emission into the atmosphere of noxious or offensive substances At a work place it is your duty to take care of yourself and anyone else who may be affected by your actions. No task should be done by you which you have not been trained or instructed to do so. No equipments should be misused in the interest of health an d safety. The responsibilities of a manager should be that they make you aware of everything that is regarding to health and safety at work. Such as, make you aware of health and safety policies and procedure and get you signed to confirm that you have been made aware. Others such as family members or carers have also responsibilities to consider such as health and safety in maintaining security, hand washing and no smoking rule. No task should be carried out without having had a special training. No need to be playing a hero if you are not trained to help at what ever the situation is. Medication should only be given by a trained staff and who also can demonstrate competence. There is so many things that could possible go wrong regarding giving a patient medication. Sudden accidents that may occur in work setting could be falling down the stairs or slipping on a wet floor. Illness that could occur are poisoning, allergy and burns. The procedure that should be followed if the floor is wet, a sign should be put up to make people aware that it is dangerous and slipper and cleaned straight away. The procedure that should be followed if someone gets poisoned or has a severe burns they should be taken to the A&E. Stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. Stress is a body's way to react to a challenge. There are many signs that indicates stress, those are as follows: poor concentration tearfullness anxiety and depression high blood pressure weight gain or loss insomnia Signs that indicate own stress are physical stressors, emotional stressors and social stressors. Physical stressors are pain in your body, illness, disability, lack of sleep, poor diet and too much exercise or none. Emotional stressors, dealing with family problems, meeting deadlines, looking for a job, responsibilities at work and home and helplessness. Social stressors, relationships, financial problem, coping with children, moving house, getting married and having a baby. In order to overcome stress, is to build emotional strength within you, controlling your situation, having a good social network and always have a positive outlook on certain things. Challenging yourself by setting goals, builds confidence and helps you take charge of your life. Been active has a lot of benefits, not just by calming your emotions and help you think more clearly but also by cleaning up unwanted toxin in your body.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Abortion: Pregnancy and Unwarranted Government Intrusion

Abortion Ever since the idea/decision of abortion there has been arguments if it is moral are not. Very many people are strongly against it and state very good information on why but I'm pro abortion. I'm pro abortion because first of all it should really be up to women if its legal or not because its their bodies that have to go through the process of fetal extraction. There are some circumstances in which an abortion is needed. Lets say a high school couple happens to get pregnant they're not very capable to take care of a baby and be parents.A baby would compound the already existing problems a teen already has like school, sports, getting ready for college. Thats not life for a baby especially an unwanted one, what kind of quality of life is that for the baby or parents. What if the expectant parents of that baby aren't fit to be parents having problems with drugs and alcohol no one should grow up around that. If the baby did it could possibly follow in the corrupt footsteps of i ts failing parents and end up doing the same things.If women are forced to carry unwanted pregnancies to term the result is unwanted children which then when they grow up are at a disadvantage, and sometimes inclined toward brutal behavior to others. Now even God forbid let's say some woman had been raped and she has gotten pregnant because of that, she is probably going to want an abortion. This may sound vulgar and mean but what women would want to keep that baby and look at him or her and every day and be reminded of that time where she was highly helpless and being taken advantage of.No one should have to keep reliving that moment over and over again that would be very traumatic. Now the big problems why abortion should be legal came out in the 1973 case of Roe vs Wade. This case came along after women started having behind the scenes abortions where women had it done by coat hangers and dirty instruments to perform these highly dangerous procedures usually done on themselves or buy a paid person who has done these horrid procedures before. Most women would end up having serious infections, internal bleeding and in some cases even death.So abortion should be legal so we don't have this back-room procedures anymore and women having fatal injuries. But if they already have a serious disease or complication such as heart disease, kidney disease, severe hypertension, sickle-cell anemia and severe diabetes. The availability of legal abortion can help advert serious medical problems that can occur from childbirth. If abortion was illegal the government would be pushing an â€Å"undue burden† on women and or families which is illegal anyway because the government can not intrude on a person or persons life like that.And when an abortion is done a women only has 90 days to have on done or it becomes illegal regardless. (the trimester law that was established in the Roe vs Wade case)   We should not intrude on women and or families matters by saying what t hey can and cant do regarding matters such as these, abortion is even protected by the 14th amendment which gives women right to privacy. We should respect and support a woman and her family as they face the life altering decision of whether to have a child or not.So its not about the fact that you are supposedly â€Å"killing† a unborn fetus its more that we have the decision and the option to do what that person needs to do. For some families an accidental pregnancy is okay but for some such an event can be very   catastrophic. It can result in increase tensions, disrupt stability and put way below the line of economic survival. The outlawing of abortion would also be discriminatory towards the poor women and families that must resort to the dangerous self-induced or back alley procedures.Men with these very wealthy families can send their wives or girlfriends to other countries and pay to have it done legally. It will also if outlawed make more children bear children stu dies show that 44% of 14 year old girls will become pregnant before they turn twenty. This could happen to your daughter or some other loved one. Abortion and reproductive freedom more broadly defined are important pieces of ensuring this common dream. To obtain a better future, we must each be free to make profoundly personal decisions about our reproductive lives without unwarranted government intrusion.As with all freedoms, there are limits. But a government that respects the personal integrity of its people both interferes in these essentially private decisions as little as possible and helps ensure that everyone has the opportunity to make these decisions responsibly. So overall there are a few circumstances where an abortion is needed such as early childhood, medical complications that can be averted, and could cause major problems for the family and the unborn child.This is why I feel that abortion should be legal even though what the people against abortion are saying and tr y to throw in your face and make you believe. They have no evidence for their studies cause there is no proof behind what they say. The fetus can not feel pain before the first trimester (90 days) and no where in the bible does it say that its wrong because when the bible was written abortions weren't even around at the time let alone thought of.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Needs and risk assessment of physical disabilities Essays

Needs and risk assessment of physical disabilities Essays Needs and risk assessment of physical disabilities Essay Needs and risk assessment of physical disabilities Essay Brief 188020 Title: Analyse the procedure, methods and ethical quandary involved in set abouting a demands and hazard appraisal in a instance of physical disablements. Case Study ( from Aust 1996 ) Emma and Anne who are both in their early mid-twentiess have known each other for many old ages, holding met through a twenty-four hours Centre for people with physical disablements. As a consequence of a head hurt, Emma can non walk at all and uses a wheelchair. Anne has intellectual paralysis and besides uses a wheelchair. The misss have decided that they now want to populate together, but their parents are objecting to this thought stating that they would be excessively vulnerable in the community. Anne’s parents besides consider Emma to be too dominant and manipulative’ sing their ain girl. ( Aust 1996: 178 ) The instance presents the societal worker who is to transport out a hazard appraisal with a overplus of jobs. The essay will sketch the values, general ethical theories and the assorted theoretical accounts that can be utilised when measuring hazards for Emma and Anne’s move. It will besides reexamine the model for hazard appraisal that is available to societal workers and measure its utility in making a feasible solution to the aspirations of Emma and Anne to populate independently. Although it may non strike an perceiver as an ethical quandary at first, the legion facets involved in the determination devising procedure necessitate any societal worker to weigh the benefits and disadvantages of alternate classs of actions non merely for the two immature adult females but besides for any other involved party such as carers and so the societal worker herself ( Carson 1996 ) . This exercising of measuring benefits across those who are involved in the procedure of attention for Em ma and Anne in the past and in the hereafter under new fortunes needs to pull on ethical norms and constructs. The essay will undertake the assorted facets in bend and will chalk out a possible solution to the job every bit far as the fortunes that must necessarily act upon any determination are known in this instance. Risk appraisal has undergone a extremist transmutation over the last decennary in England and Wales ( Garrett 2003 ) . While ethical theories still play a more fringy function in concrete determination devising procedures in societal work, the work of practicians is to a great extent influenced by new theoretical accounts of appraisal, altering values and bureau processs. Although many local governments strive to formalize and standardize the procedure of hazard appraisal for their societal workers, there is merely loose and general counsel available from national administrations ( HSE 2002 ; Carson 1996: 11 ; with the exclusion of kid appraisal for which the UK authorities has provided a close compulsory appraisal model, californium. Garrett 2003 ) . Consequently the burden of measuring bing and possible hazards to persons is placed on societal workers who need to be equipped with robust theoretical accounts of appraisal in order to get at valid and sensible determinations. Additionally, although the Centre of determination devising is easy switching to service users, authorization of clients must stay a distant possibility if sufficient resources are non made available to ease the determinations taken by users and societal workers. Social workers are therefore put in a place in which they have beliing truenesss ; on one manus to place that class of action that is of most benefit to the service user ( BASW 1985 ; GSCC 2002 ) , on the other manus, to administer existing resources in the fairest manner across those entitled to have resources. The literature identifies several values that inform societal service hazard appraisal and societal work in general in the UK ( Banks 2006 ; Beckett 2005 ) . Social workers must endeavor to protect the self-respect of service users, heighten the possibility for self-government and recognize the worth of any person in their battle with clients ( BASW 1985 ; GSCC 2002 ) . While the more general thoughts that underlie societal work are frequently identified as societal justness in the wider social context, theoreticians frequently point out that specific norms such as forestalling favoritism on evidences of physical or learning disablement every bit good as societal inclusion and equity in administering existing resources and supplying entree to them flux logically from the more abstract impression of persons entitled to esteem and equal intervention. Additionally, some argue that continuing the unity of societal work professional is besides a basic value that should regulate societal w ork pattern, something that has found its manner into the assorted codifications of pattern in the UK ( BASW 1985 ; GSCC 2002 ) . Three sets of theories are seen as relevant to a more profound apprehension of the nature of societal work. Banks identifies principle based ethical theories, such as deontological ( Kantian ) and useful moralss, aboard virtue moralss and extremist theory. There has been ample argument about whether or non codifications of moralss reflect anything close to valid ethical theories. Banks ( 2003 ) argues that ethical codifications are really much the result of schemes of professions to circumference a sphere of duty accessible merely to practicians of the peculiar profession. They are vehicles of procuring position and privilege for societal workers and legalizing the liberty of the profession as a whole from external regulative intervention ( Banks 2003: 139 and 142 ) . International comparings reveal that professional codifications vary widely in length, content and signifier. Consequently they are capable to reviews from different angles. A cardinal unfavorable judgment nevertheless seems to use to about all codifications of moralss and that is that they often fail to carry through their chief map to steer societal workers in their professional pattern ( Banks 2003: 140 ) . Codes of moralss tend to be idealistic insofar as they formula te abstract moral rules as the foundation of societal work. If professional codifications are elevated to regulative position, violation of these rules might take to disciplinary action, an absurd scenario since the application of moral rules in concrete instances is unfastened to debate and reading ( Banks 2003: 141-142 ) . More significantly, Garrett ( 2003 ) argues that elaborate appraisal models carry through a political function and should be seen in the UK as portion of the wider New Labour scheme for cut downing unfairnesss in society. While this may look commendable, the merely elaborate appraisal model that Tony Blair’s authorities introduced carries deep paternalistic deductions and its societal inclusion rhetoric disguises the fact that the bordering scheme of New Labour’s economic repertory remains †¦essentially the neo-liberal one’ ( Garrett 2003: 451 ) . The instruments of societal alteration every bit remain conventional and undisputed. Garrett points out that New Labour envisages waged work as the chief tool for societal inclusion, thereby blatantly cut downing the complexnesss of societal justness and inclusion to material well-being ( Garrett 2003: 449 ) . He criticizes the late implemented kid appraisal model as excessively reliant on graduated tables, while still neglecting to supply a clear grounds base for opinions and recommendations’ ( Garrett 2003: 453 ) . Assessment frameworks hence may merely neglect to promote brooding and critical pattern of societal workers and overemphasise attachment to governmental ordinances and processs. Since societal work pattern is fatally wedded to a New Labour vision of society-government relationship in which the authorities knows best, assessment models can at best be vehicle for paternalistic supervising of parents and kids ( Garrett 2003: 447 ) . Previously to the challenge of the established theoretical account, the impression of hazard was defined as the possible to do injury to the service user or any others in the populace or the private sphere ( Carson 1996: 9 ) . The important difference between the more advanced impression of hazard and the older theoretical account of hazard appraisal is that hazard is today defined in a broader manner and relates to the quality of life of handicapped people ( Ross 1996 ) . Consequently, societal workers are tasked to see hazard that are unnecessarily placed on handicapped people which may take to societal exclusion and unacceptable low degrees of societal battle ( Parker 2003: 13 ) . This has resulted in a extremist re-formulation of the demands of handicapped people in society. Hazard now carries positive every bit good as negative intensions and may take to both good and harmful results ( Ross 1996: 81 ) . Social workers are urged to take both sides into history in their appraisal. In the given instance, the societal worker would hold to weigh the benefits for Emma and Anne by populating independently against the hazard that may be present in the event that necessary support may non be available at certain times in their level. Social workers therefore need to gauge the probability and size of known possible results that result from interaction of known and unknown factors’ ( Ross 1996: 82 ) . In this new strategy of things, hazard is a state of affairs where a individual is exposed to chances, jeopardies, and dangers’ ( Ross 1996: 82 ) Since one desired facet of hazard appraisal is non merely to guarantee that clients are consulted but actively take part in the determination devising procedure, any societal worker who carries out hazard appraisal must besides see who bears duties in instance things go incorrect ( Carson 1996 ) . If for illustration, Emma and Anne would disregard the indicant by the societal worker that there are no sufficient resources to vouch uninterrupted round the clock support in their new level, the societal worker must explicate to them that this may present an incalculable hazard to their well being. In the terminal the societal worker must guarantee that they arrive at a determination that balances their demands for independent life with those of the assorted stakeholders in the procedure. There are foremost the parents and carers of both Emma and Anne whose concerns must be heard and considered. By the same item, the societal worker would hold a duty to weigh these concerns against the possible involvements of the carers to forestall Emma and Anne from populating independently, non because it is non in their best involvement, but because it may non function themselves and their established fiscal and familial agreements. In a study of assessment pattern in societal work and determination devising processs, Holland has pointed out that since appraisal by practicians relies to a great extent on verbal interaction, those clients who manage to set up a relationship with societal workers that purports to rest on shared values predisposes determination shapers favorably towards the carers. On the other manus, those carers who do non go on to hold a sufficient articulacy, do non show equal co-operation with the societal worker or fail to offer an agreed plausible account for the household state of affairs do non win in household re-unification or other aims ( Holland 2000 ) . The nucleus standard for a positive appraisal appears to be the willingness of carers to accept in an articulate and convincing manner the position of the societal worker on past events and current fortunes of the household ( Holland 2000: 158-159 ) . Access to resources or the power to do determinations that affect households may therefore easy interpret into coercive relationships between societal workers and households, while the latter are compelled to acknowledge the societal worker’s reading of the family’s state of affairs as the lone valid 1 ( Holland 2000 ) . Calder outlines the assorted phases of hazard appraisal ( in kid attention contexts ) and distinguishes between the hypothesis on possibilities, information assemblage, information testing, determination devising and rating of this determination. But even with this elaborate step-by-step algorithm ( similar in Milner 2002: 62-63 ) , while it is possible to measure single hazards, it remains vague how societal workers are supposed to weigh hazards against each other ( Calder 1996: 35 ) . This is where societal doctrines are coming into drama. Social workers may moderately trust on their intuition sing the differing weight that they may desire to tie in with different hazards. Such a quandary may tend societal workers towards the original theoretical account of hazard appraisal one time once more, where impressions of single physical or emotional injury predominate the appraising procedure. Emma and Anne’s proposal for independent life may be rejected on these evidences. Inciden tally, Emma and Anne may besides be denied the want to travel into a level merely because non sufficient resources can be found to back up them at that place, and while this is a frequent external restraint it emerges in the hazard appraisal scheme as a legitimate ground to forestall Emma and Anne’s wants. Scarce resources therefore may forestall societal workers from traveling to a more balanced and advanced theoretical account of hazard appraisal as lineation earlier and forces them to return back to the original impression of hazard that was found wanting by protagonism groups and handicapped people themselves. In add-on societal workers may be confronted with a important deficiency of fit’ between their assessment recommendations and the existent opportunities of seeing this through by using bing collaborative webs between bureaus. Unless more resources are made available it is hard to see that the new theoretical account of hazard can meaningfully be implemented across societal service appraisals. Ross argues that societal workers should ideally use an exchange theoretical account of appraisal which assumes that the worker has expertise in job work outing [ while ] the user has expertise about the problem’ ( Ross 1996: 88 ) . Yet, any such sophisticated theoretical accounts of appraisal must be considered against the background of practical restraints such as budgetary restrictions, which may frequently annul assessment results and recommendations by societal workers. Mentions Aust, A. , Hazel Kemshall, Jane Lawson e.a. ( 1996 ) . Using Hazard in Practice: Case Studies and Training Material.Good Practice in Risk Assessment and Risk Management. H. Kemshall and J. Pritchard. London and Bristol, Pennsylvania, Jessica Kingsley: 176-197. BASW ( 1985 ) . A Code of Ethics for Social Work, British Association of Social Workers ( BASW ) . Banks, S. ( 2003 ) . From oaths to rulebooks: a critical scrutiny of codifications of moralss for the societal professions.European Journal of Social Work. Vol. 6, No. 2, 133-144. Banks, S. ( 2006 ) .Ethical motives and Valuess in Social Work. London, Palgrave. Beckett, C. and Maynard, A. ( 2005 ) .Valuess and Ethical motives in Social Work. An Introduction. London Thousand Oaks New Delhi, Sage. Calder, M. C. ( 2003 ) . The Assessment Model: A Critique and Reformulation.Appraisal in Child Care. Using and Developing Frameworks for Practice. M. C. Calder and S. Hackett. Dorset, Russell House Publication: 3-60. Carson, D. ( 1996 ) . Risking Legal Repercussions.Good Practice in Risk Assessment and Risk Management. H. Kemshall and J. Pritchard. London and Bristol, Pennsylvania, Jessica Kingsley: 3-12. Garrett, P.M. ( 2003 ) . Swiming with Dolphinfishs: The Assessment Framework, New Labour and New Tools for Social Work with Children and Families.British Journal of Social Work. 33, 441-463. GSCC ( 2002 ) . Code of Practice for Social Care Workers and Code of Practice for Employers of Social Care Workers. General Social Care Council. ( available at ) Hackett, M. C. Calder and S. Hackett, Eds. ( 2003 ) .Appraisal in Child Care. Using and Developing Frameworks for Practice. Dorset, Russell House Publishing. Holland, S. ( 2000 ) . The Assessment Relationship: Interactions between Social Workers and Parents in Child Protection Assessments.British Journal of Social Work. 30, 149-163. HSE ( 2002 ) . Five Stairss to Risk Assessment. Health and Safety Executive ( available at ) Kemshall, H. and Pritchard, J. , Eds. ( 1996 ) .Good Practice in Risk Assessment and Risk Management. London and Bristol, Pennsylvania, Jessica Kingsley. Milner, J. and Patrick O’Byrne ( 2002 ) . Appraisal in Social Work. Second Edition. Basingstoke, Palgrave. Parker, J. and Bradley, G. ( 2003 ) . Social Work Practice: Appraisal, Planning, Intervention and Review. Exeter, Learning Matters. Waterson, L. R. a. J. ( 1996 ) . Hazard for Whom? Social Work and Peoples with Physical Disabilities.Good Practice in Risk Assessment and Risk Management. Edited by H. Kemshall and J. Pritchard. London and Bristol, Pennsylvania, Jessica Kingsley Publishers: 80-92.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Researching French-Canadian Ancestry Genealogy

Researching French-Canadian Ancestry Genealogy Even if you cant read French, tracing French-Canadian ancestors can be easier than many people expect due to the excellent record keeping of the Roman Catholic Church in Canada. Baptisms, marriages,  and burials were all dutifully recorded in the parish registers, with copies also sent to civil authorities. This, along with the incredibly high rate of French-Canadian records preservation, offers a much greater, more complete record of people living in Quebec and other parts of New France than in most other areas of North America and the world. In most cases, French-Canadian ancestry should be fairly easily traceable back to the immigrant ancestors, and you may even be able to trace some lines further back in France. Maiden Names Dit Names As in France, most French-Canadian church and civil records are recorded under a womans maiden name, making it much easier to trace both sides of your family tree. Sometimes, but not always, a womans married surname is included as well. In many areas of French-speaking Canada, families sometimes adopted an alias, or second surname in order to distinguish between different branches of the same family, especially when the families remained in the same town for generations. These alias surnames, also known as dit names, can often be found preceded by the word dit, as in Armand Hudon dit Beaulieu where Armand is the given name, Hudon is the original family surname, and Beaulieu is the dit name. Sometimes an individual even adopted the dit name as the family name and dropped the original surname. This practice was most common in France among soldiers and sailors. Dit names are important for anyone researching French-Canadian ancestors, as they necessitate searching the records under several various surname combinations. French-Canadian Rà ©pertoires (Indexes) Since the mid-nineteenth century, many French Canadians have worked to trace their families back to France and, in doing so, have created a large number of indexes to various parish records, known as rà ©pertoires or repertories. The vast majority of these published indexes or rà ©pertoires are of marriage (mariage) records, although a few exist which include baptisms (baptà ªme) and burials (sà ©pulture). Rà ©pertoires are generally arranged alphabetically by surname, while those that are organized chronologically usually include a surname index. By exploring all of the rà ©pertoires that include a particular parish (and following up in the original parish records), one can often take a French-Canadian family tree back through many generations. The majority of published rà ©pertoires are not yet available online. They can, however, often be found in major libraries with a strong French-Canadian focus, or libraries local to the parish(s) of interest. Many have been microfilmed and are available through the Family History Library in Salt Lake City and Family History Centers throughout the world. Major online repertoires or databases of indexed French-Canadian marriage, baptism and burial records include: BMS2000 - This cooperative project involving over twenty genealogical societies in Quà ©bec and Ontario is one of the largest online sources of indexed baptism, marriage, and burial (sà ©pulture) records. It covers the period from the beginning of the French colony until the end of the XXth century. The Drouin Collection - Available online as a subscription database from, this amazing collection includes nearly 15 million French-Canadian parish and other records of interest from Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, and many U.S states with a large French-Canadian population. Indexed too! Church Records As in France, records of the Roman Catholic Church are the single best source for tracing French-Canadian families. Christening, marriage and burial records have been carefully recorded and preserved in the parish registers from 1621 to the present. Between 1679 and 1993 all parishes in Quà ©bec were required to send duplicate copies to the civil archives, which has ensured that the majority of Roman Catholic parish records in Quà ©bec still survive to this day. These baptismal, marriage and burial records are generally written in French (some earlier records may be in Latin), but often follow a standardized format which makes them easy to follow even if you know little or know French. Marriage records are an especially important source for immigrant ancestors to New France, or French-Canadian Canada because they usually document the immigrants parish and town of origin in France. The Family History Library has microfilmed the majority of Quà ©bec Catholic registers from 1621-1877, as well as most civil copies of Catholic registers between 1878 and 1899. This collection of Quà ©bec Catholic Parish Registers, 1621-1900 has been digitized and is also available for viewing online for free through FamilySearch. There are a few indexed entries, but to access most records youll need to use the browse images link and go through them manually.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Killer Whale Dorsal Fin Collapse

Killer Whale Dorsal Fin Collapse For some time, theres been a heated debate about why  killer whales in captivity have dorsal fins that are flopped over or collapsed. Animal-rights activists say that these fins collapse because the conditions under which killer whales - or  orcas - are held in captivity are not healthy. Others, such as water parks that keep killer whales in captivity and use them in theme-park shows, argue that there are no health threats to killer whales held in captivity and that dorsal fin collapse is natural. The Lowdown on Dorsal Fins All killer whales have a dorsal fin on their back, but the males dorsal fin is much taller than a females and can grow up to 6 feet tall. Despite the fact that the dorsal fin is very straight, it is supported not by bone but a fibrous connective tissue called collagen. All males in captivity have collapsed dorsal fins, but the condition, also known as dorsal fin collapse, flaccid fin, or folded fin syndrome, ​does occur in many captive females. Scientists are not certain why orcas have dorsal fins or what purpose the appendages serve. But, there is some speculation.  Whales Online  says that the large dorsal fin enhances the hydrodynamics of killer whales: (The dorsal fin) helps them slip through the water more efficiently. Similar to the ears of elephants or the tongues of dogs, dorsal, caudal and pectoral fins also help eliminate excess heat during intense activities such as hunting. Orca Live  agrees that the fins help regulate a killer whales body temperature: Excess heat, generated as they swim along, is released into the surrounding water and air via the dorsal fin - much like a radiator! Though there are different theories about their specific purpose, its a fact that dorsal fin collapse is far more prevalent in whales that are held in captivity. Dorsal Fin Collapse A wild orca often travels far, and quickly, in deep water. The water provides pressure to the fin, keeping the tissues inside healthy and straight. One theory as to why dorsal fins collapse in captivity is because the orca spends much of its time at the water surface and doesnt swim very far. This means that the fin tissue gets less support than it would if the orca were in the wild, and it starts to fall over. The whales also often swim in a repetitive circular pattern. Other potential causes for fin collapse may be dehydration and overheating of fin tissue  due to  warmer water and air temperatures, stress due to captivity or changes in diet,  reduced activity that causes low blood pressure, or age. SeaWorld of Hurt, a website operated by animal rights organization PETA, takes this stance, noting that dorsal fins of captive whales likely collapse Because they have no space in which to swim freely and are fed an unnatural diet of thawed dead fish. SeaWorld claims that this condition is common - however, in the wild, it rarely ever happens and is a sign of an injured or unhealthy orca. SeaWorld announced in 2016 that it would stop breeding whales in captivity immediately and  phase out killer whale shows  at all its parks by 2019. (In San Diego, the shows ended in 2017.) The company has said, however, that the shape of a killer whales dorsal fin is  not an indicator of its health. The dorsal fin is a structure like our ear, said Dr. Christopher Dold, SeaWorld’s head veterinarian: It doesnt have any bones in it whatsoever. So our whales spend a lot of time at the surface, and accordingly, tall, heavy dorsal fins (of adult male killer whales) without any bone in it, will slowly bend over and assume a different shape. Wild Orcas While less likely, it is not impossible for a wild orcas dorsal fin to collapse or become bent, and it may be a trait that varies among whale populations. A study of killer whales in New Zealand showed a relatively high rate - 23 percent - of collapsing, collapsed, or even bent or wavy dorsal fins. This was higher than that observed in populations in British Columbia or Norway, where only one male from the 30 studied had a fully collapsed dorsal fin, the study said. In 1989, the dorsal fins of two male killer whales collapsed after exposure to oil during the  Exxon Valdez  oil spill- the whales collapsed fins were thought to be a sign of poor health, as both whales died soon after the collapsed fins were documented. Researchers have theorized that dorsal fin collapse in wild whales may be due to age, stress, injury, or altercations with other killer whales.   Sources Matkin, C. O., and E. Saulitis. 1997. Restoration Notebook: Killer Whale (Orcinus orca). Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, Anchorage, Alaska.  National Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Regional Office. 2005. Proposed Conservation Plan for Southern Resident Killer Whales, ). orcaOrcinusVisser, I.N. 1998. Prolific Body Scars and Collapsing Dorsal Fins on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in New Zealand Waters. Aquatic Mammals  24.2,71-81.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Personal Statement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 7

Personal Statement - Essay Example During this time, her assistance in the home, taking care of the house and her younger sister, has been indispensable as I was a full-time student, studying Economics at San Diego State University, while juggling a full-time job for The Hilton Resort. While her support drew the deep respect and admiration of my contemporaries, it was Alinah’s consistency and excellence that got me through college, and through the many obstacles of life we’ve always faced together. She has also gone beyond the boundaries of the home to try to help others as well. As a youth, she was actively involved in The Boys & Girls Club of San Francisco. Alinah was easily one of the most affable children at the club, with great communication and personal interaction skills. Notably, she had a fantastic ability to make friends and develop long lasting relationships. She always treated her peers and the staff with dignity and always showed respect for authority. In addition, she brought a great deal of energy and enthusiasm to the center, showing her natural leadership ability and infectious personality. Not only did these personality traits draw respect and admiration from her peers, it also won her the position of Class President of her 6th grade class in 2006 and she has worked in the capacity of a safety patrol officer for her school. Also in 2006, she entered herself in a local beauty pageant and brought home the crown. Unfortunately, 2006 wasn’t the brilliant year it started out. In April, toward the end of her school year, she was diagnosed with severe Polyarcticular Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. In the beginning of her illness, she lost more than 25 pounds and could not walk with ease; she spent most of her afternoons and evenings in bed and could not eat without pain due to the inflammation in her jaw. All of her joints were affected and her condition worsened during the following six months. Also during this

Friday, October 18, 2019

Financial Analysis for Managers Research Paper

Financial Analysis for Managers - Research Paper Example c. Which project is most attractive to a firm that can raise an unlimited amount of funds to pay for its investment projects Which project is most attractive to a firm that is limited in the funds it can raise c) Project B would be the choice for a firm with no hassle in arranging funds. The reason being that though the project has a lower Profitability index and even a lower NPV but its consistent cash flows could be attractive for big investors. Such investors are called Mutually Exclusive. How ever when the funds are limited, then Project A would be the choice as the Profitability Index and NPV are both favorable and this shows the best method to use the funds efficiently. Kinky Copies may buy a high-volume copier. The machine costs $100,000 and will be depreciated straight-line over 5 years to a salvage value of $20,000. Kinky anticipates that the machine actually can be sold in 5 years for $30,000. The machine will save $20,000 a year in labor costs but will require an increase in working capital, mainly paper supplies, of $10,000. The firm's marginal tax rate is 35 percent, and the discount rate is 8 percent. Should kinky buy the machine .. = $ 12.17 Thus from the calculations it is evident that Project A has a higher NPV. b) Profitability Index Formula = Present value of the cash flows/ initial investment. Profitability Index for Project A = (18.182 + 16.528 + 15.026)/36 = 1.38 Profitability Index for Project B = (22.7275 + 20.66 + 18.7825)/50 = 1.24 Hence the Profitability Index for Project A is higher. c) Project B would be the choice for a firm with no hassle in arranging funds. The reason being that though the project has a lower Profitability index and even a lower NPV but its consistent cash flows could be attractive for big investors. Such investors are called Mutually Exclusive. How ever when the funds are limited, then Project A would be the choice as the Profitability Index and NPV are both favorable and this shows the best method to use the funds efficiently. Q.23. Project Evaluation. Kinky Copies may buy a high-volume copier. The machine costs $100,000 and will be depreciated straight-line over 5 years to a salvage value of $20,000. Kinky anticipates that the machine actually can be sold in 5 years for $30,000. The machine will save $20,000 a year in labor costs but will require an increase in working capital, mainly paper supplies, of $10,000. The firm's marginal tax rate is 35 percent, and the discount rate is 8 percent. Should kinky buy the machine Ans. 23 In this Project evaluation, we will go step by step to analyze the acceptance of this machine by the firm. First we will take in consideration all the costs of this project. 1) The Depreciation cost. Depreciation (Straight Line) formula = Total cost - salvage value/number of years to be used. Depreciation for the copier = 100,000 - 20,000/5 = 16,000 Thus the total

Summary to the Article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Summary to the Article - Essay Example Another question that the paper addresses is the major geographical locations where the evolution supposedly took place and the location of the resultant fossils as discovered by archeologists. This is directly related to the adaptation to their current ecological niche. Although the results obtained need further research as stipulated by the recommendation, it is obvious that most of the tetrapods are found in the Arctic Canada where most of the evolution took place. In this regard, the data presented by the paper closely coincide with the conclusion in that the body scales, lower jaws, and other features are closely comparable to the primitive sarcopterygians. It is however important to note that there are significant implications of the study for understanding tetrapod origins and evolution in that the study exposes the geological setting together with the morphological features of this kind of fish that has been discovered and in so doing the study suggests the possibility of life in shallow-water, subaerial, and marginal

Thursday, October 17, 2019

IP 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

IP 5 - Essay Example 2. The second position is in Maryland, earning $65,000 per year. You found a starter duplex that you can purchase with an assessed value of $135,000. Property taxes average 2.4% of the assessed value. The state sales tax rate is 1% higher than in Pennsylvania, and it also applies to food and clothing. Marylands state income tax rate is 1.5% higher than Pennsylvanias. With the data above, complete the following table, with all values rounded to the nearest cent. Note that the Difference column is the difference between Pennsylvania’s and Maryland’s values. (Hint: Property tax only applies to housing; state sales tax only applies to purchases and food and clothing, when applicable; and income tax only applies to the salary.) The difference in cost of living between the two locations (Maryland and Pennsylvania) based on the differences in sales tax, income tax, and property tax is $3,033.75. In other words, I have to pay an additional $3,033.75 in taxes in Maryland as compared to Pennsylvania. This does not much influence which job to choose, as the difference in taxes (sales tax, income tax, and property tax) of $3,033.75 is much less as compared to the difference in salary $15,000 between the two

Wk 11 (2nd Discussion) Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Wk 11 (2nd Discussion) - Article Example is really about questioning the authenticity of something regarded as fact, and this perspective should be adapted and not disregarded if one aspires to grow in truthful information.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One way to interact with information is by delving deeper into its research basis. If a claim is made, one should ask, â€Å"What scientific research supports such claims?† (Pope, 1998). If none can be provided, then this claim can be dismissed as mere hearsay, or looking at it as a challenge, is a statement which can fuel a research study to be conducted to determine whether it is true or not. If a research study is provided as a support though, then it is but proper and fitting to scrutinize the instruments and methods utilized in gathering and analyzing data. For example, if s survey questionnaire was given out by a psychologist to the respondents, validity of the tool should first be established to ensure that the questions will not bring about bias to the study or it should undergo face and content validation by experts in the field first to ensure that the questions are not leading towards specific results. This should be done since the anomalie s may be rooted foremost in the methodology, which also paved way for erroneous conclusions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Now, the aforementioned approach can be likened to the scrutiny of the branches of a plant. Another way to determine the accuracy of information is to examine closely vague and ambiguous terms. Repressed memories of sexual abuse during childhood have been studied by many, but the definition of repressed memories has been haphazardly used by in media, literature and in legal proceedings. A gray area has clouded the vivid demarcation of whether repressed memories are figments of the unconscious defense mechanisms or whether it is a scheme of forgetting (Pope, 1998). Defining terms and allotting which definition is described in which study can provide a much clearer way of assimilating information, and a way to determine

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

IP 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

IP 5 - Essay Example 2. The second position is in Maryland, earning $65,000 per year. You found a starter duplex that you can purchase with an assessed value of $135,000. Property taxes average 2.4% of the assessed value. The state sales tax rate is 1% higher than in Pennsylvania, and it also applies to food and clothing. Marylands state income tax rate is 1.5% higher than Pennsylvanias. With the data above, complete the following table, with all values rounded to the nearest cent. Note that the Difference column is the difference between Pennsylvania’s and Maryland’s values. (Hint: Property tax only applies to housing; state sales tax only applies to purchases and food and clothing, when applicable; and income tax only applies to the salary.) The difference in cost of living between the two locations (Maryland and Pennsylvania) based on the differences in sales tax, income tax, and property tax is $3,033.75. In other words, I have to pay an additional $3,033.75 in taxes in Maryland as compared to Pennsylvania. This does not much influence which job to choose, as the difference in taxes (sales tax, income tax, and property tax) of $3,033.75 is much less as compared to the difference in salary $15,000 between the two

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Review of a Live Theatre Perfomance (Fences by August Wilson) Essay

Review of a Live Theatre Perfomance (Fences by August Wilson) - Essay Example Based on the setting of 1950’s, Fences centers an African American family. It records their dreams, desperation, success and failure. Tight-lipped with myriad images and symbols playing subtly throughout the play and revealed at the outset and onset of the plot, ‘Fences’ is definitely a masterpiece and is also humanistic. The play comments on the evolving African-American experience and very minutely examines intricately the ‘race-relations’ woven within the plot of the play among many other themes. Divided in between two plots, containing four and five scenes respectively, the story revolves round the depression of the Afro-American community in post world war II period. The play opens on the pay day of two workers named Bono and Tory. Both the two characters are very important in the play. Bono and Tory are found to be drinking while talking. Tory is introduced to the audience through his speech and this forms a very unique style of performing artistry. Tory’s character is revealed by his act of moving towards his boss Mr. Rand and his query about the prohibition for the Black men for driving garbage trucks. Next, the audience is introduced to the other two important characters of the play, Lyons and Rose, who joined the conversation. With the development of the conversation, audience gets to know about the fact that Tory once stabbed a man which indicates some abnormalities in his behaviors. Lyons is a musician by profession who is introduced to the audience while he was asking for money from his father and was quite confident about the fact that he will receive it from his father, Tory. Tory renders his son a hard and trying time by refusing the money though at last the father agrees. With the development of the plot, eventually it is revealed that Tory had an affair with a woman named Alberta. It is noteworthy

Monday, October 14, 2019

Biological Perspective Essay Example for Free

Biological Perspective Essay One client I worked with had very low levels of assertiveness and because of this was often treated very badly by friends, family and work colleagues. This led to her becoming really rather depressed, which meant that she tended to avoid interactions with other people whenever possible, lowering further still her confidence and her ability to deal with social situations. She was becoming increasingly withdrawn. Whilst the counselling helped her to understand how she was contributing towards her own distress by having so low an opinion of herself, the antidepressants helped her to feel well enough to start to re-engage with people and to put into practice some of the ideas and life skills she was learning in therapy. By the time the medication was slowly stopped after her depression had lifted, she had firmly established new patterns of behaviour and relationships. She was easily able to continue this new and more useful way of being, therefore removing the need for further medication. Back to Top The Disadvantages of Antidepressants Many people I know would say that when you are profoundly depressed, there are no disadvantages to taking something that makes you feel better. Certainly I know many clients whose lives have been transformed by taking the right antidepressant, prescribed by their doctor or psychiatrist. Having said that, no medication is without its problems. With antidepressants, the main problems are firstly, finding the right antidepressant and secondly, side-effects. Antidepressants seem to help about half of the people who take them and different antidepressants work better with some people than others. The process of matching the right medication to the person is far from a precise science and one psychiatrist I know will admit that it often comes down to luck and guesswork. Having said that, the choice of antidepressant is usually informed by the exact nature of the symptoms experienced.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Aircraft Hydraulic And Pneumatic Systems Engineering Essay

Aircraft Hydraulic And Pneumatic Systems Engineering Essay This report represents investigation and analyzes Airbus A318 pneumatic system. On the other hand, aircraft pneumatic systems will be lay-out in this report. The sources of supply in this system both main and standby will also be mention. The last is the pressure and temperature control in this system will be analysed. The purpose of this report is to analyzing Airbus A318 pneumatic systems and the function of pneumatic systems in Airbus A318. The function Pneumatic system is used to provide High pressure (HP) for air-conditioning, pressurization, pressurization and anti-icing. Engine bleed, APU and external ground service are used to produce HP. The engine bleed air is the air taken within the engine compression stage when pressure and temperature regulated prior. High Pressure Compressor (HPC) stages, intermediate Pressure (IP) stages and HP stages are the place where the air is bled. When the engine in low power condition, the High Pressure Bleed Valve (HPV) will function and supply air to the systems. But, when the pressure inside the IP bleed is sufficient, HPV will closes. HP Valve (HP VLV) HP VLV is switch ON when the IP stage is no enough pressure for pneumatically systems (when engine at low speed). The pressure supply is between 8 to 36 psi. HP VLV is force to close when PRV is closed because HP VLV pressure should no more than PRV pressure. If the sense line over the limitation, the system will over pressure and cause malfunction. The function of Bleed Monitoring Computer (BMC) is to maintain HP VLV closed during the flight. The HP VLV solenoid will active by BMC when: The engine is greater than Idle and pressure is over 80psi. When the Wing Anti Ice (WAI) is OFF condition The altitude is over 15,000 feet The pack configuration is act normal. When solenoid is de-energized, this mean the HP VLV will open. This condition is restrained. IP check valve IP check valve is used to prevent the air flow in the anti-direction. When the HP VLV opens, IP check valve will make sure hit air at IP stage wouldnt flow back to the engine. Pressure Regulating Valve (PRV) The purpose PRV is used to maintain the bleed pressure between 44 psi. Thermal fuse is used to causes the PRV to close when the engines case temperature was around 450Â °C. Control Solenoid (CTL SOL) The CTL SOL is located downstream from the precooler. The purpose is to control PRV pressure will going to bleed out. These systems are operated by pneumatic and electric. The CTL solenoid will energize by BMC when: Over temperature of the precooler Over pressure of the PRV Leak detection surrounding area APU bleed valve not close Starter Valve not closed Overpressure Valve (OPV) This valve is normally open condition, close when pressure is apply on this valve. This valve closes at 75psi and fully closed at 85. It will open around 35psi. Regulated Pressure It is act as a transducer. It is connected to both BMCs and analyzes the pressure from PRV. Transferred Pressure This component is also same function as regulated pressure. But it is used to read from HPV and PRV. Fan Air Valve (FAV) It is used to control the fan airflow to the precooler and maintain bleed air temperature at 200Â °C. FAV Control Thermostat (CTL THERMST) Act as external servo-control. It is located downstream from the precooler. Heat Exchanger (Precooler) It is used to reduce the temperature engine bleed air. Heat Exchanger Outlet Temperature Sensor This component is connected to both BMCs. It is use to control temperature downstream from the precooler. APU Bleed/ External Air APU is used to bleed air supply for air- conditional and engine start when the aircraft was on the ground. On the other hand, APU also use to provide electrical power to supply the electrical systems. APU bleed act as a backup power for both systems. The both bleed systems are fastening together by a cross bleed duct. External air also can be use during in flight, depend on the high of the aircraft. When in flight, the APU bleed supply only supplied by the left hand side of the cross bleed duct. APU bleed APU bleed valve is used to supply APU is running. The valve is operated by electrically by the Electrical Control Box (ECB) solenoid and pneumatic. When air pressure and electrical power are unavailability, valves spring -loaded will shut off. Electrical Control Box (ECB) It is use to monitor the pressure and closes or opens the APU bleed valve. X-Bleed System The function of X-Bleed system is to interconnection of left and right bleed air are system. In the systems, it consists of shut-off valve operated by electrical two DC motors. Primary motor will function in AUTO mode. The position of the shut off valve is controlled by the (BMC) according to the APU bleed configuration. Secondary motor will be used to over dominate the AUTO mode. The position of the valve is manipulated by X-bleed selector. Ground Air Supply It is used so supply air by a ground air cart and connected to the HP ground connector. When ground air cart is connected, only the left hand side of the bleed systems has supply. Left hand side and right hand side bleed system will feed with ground air supply when X-bleed valve selector will be select in the OPEN position. Untitled.jpg SYSTEMS OVERVIEW ENGINE BLEED APU BLEED/ EXTERNAL AIR (From MAINTENANCE COURSE BOOK T1 (CFM56-5B/ME Title: Pneumatic Level) Page 3 Conclusion Airbus A318 pneumatic systems are supply by engine bleed, APU and the Ground air supply. Engine bleed are used provide air pressure when aircraft engine is low power condition. The pressure is control by the HP valve. After the pressure inside the IP bleed is sufficient, high pressure valve (HPV) will shut down. APU is used as standby pneumatic system. It is used to provide electrical power to function the electrical and environment systems. It is used when the aircraft on the ground. APU also used when in flight condition depending on the altitude of the aircraft. It is used so supply air by a ground air cart and connected with HP ground connector. Air only was supply to left hand side of bleed system. So, crossbleed valve will use to feed the air systems to the right hand side of the bleed system.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Secret Knowledge of the Bombing of Pearl Harbor Essay -- essays re

Knowledge of the Bombing of Pearl the Secret Harbor Titans clashed in Europe...a struggle for power between the Axis(Germany, Italy, and Japan), and the Allies (France, England, and Russia), waged on. Many people died. There were famines, diseases, split up families, hardships unimaginable to people in our time. Yet one country prospered. Isolated in its own wealth and prosperity, The United States of America had no interest in the war. At least until one infamous day, December 7, 19411, the bombing of Pearl Harbor. On this day, Germany’s ally, Japan, led a surprise attack on the US Naval station in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Or was it a surprise? Did Franklin Delano Roosevelt, then president of the United States of America, know about the attack? Was he secretly hiding the information in order to enter World War II? The answer is yes. And not only did he know about the attack, he encouraged it. He used precise tactics in doing so, all the while abusing his presidential power and not helping save innocent American lives. Yet this tr agedy has been overlooked for many years, and will go unnoticed for many more. It was a â€Å"Day of Infamy†2, indeed. It was December7, 1941, the soldiers on naval base Pearl Harbor in Oahu were just waking up. Suddenly bombs began to drop, 7 ships were sunk, 2897 people were killed almost instantly, 879 were wounded3, millions of lives changed. Franklin Delano Roosevelt had wanted to enter the war for a long time. However, the United States’ public opinion was against going to war due to the stable and booming economy. The only problem was that he had to make Japan make the first move. He had to make them do this because the American people did not want to enter the war. He had to find a way. He found it in Lieutenant Commander Arthur H. McCollum. McCollum provided Roosevelt with a detailed, 8-step procedure for making Japan make the first overt move into war: A. Make an arrangement with Britain for the use of British bases in the Pacific, particularly Singapore. B. Make an arrangement with Holland for the use of base facilities and acquisition of supplies in the Dutch East Indies(now Indonesia). C. Give all possible aid to the Chinese government of Chiang Kai-shek. D. Send a division of long-range heavy cruisers to the Orient, Philippines, or Singapore. E. Send two divisions of submarines to the Orient. F. Keep the main strength of th... ...and against evil, for the surprise attack (on Pearl Harbor) made Americans sympathetic for our striped men and women, causing more help from the mass majority of Americans, eventually leading to victory in World War II. Had Nazi Germany won, no one knows the extent of evil that would have been caused. So even though Franklin Delano Roosevelt did many wrong things, his reasoning was good, and we were victorious. 1 2 FDR’s famous speech after the bombing 3 4 Stinnet, Robert; Day of Deceit, page 8 5 Stinnet, Robert; Day of Deceit, page 9 6 Stinnet, Robert; Day of Deceit, page 9 7 Stinnet, Robert; Day of Deceit, page 11 8 Stinnet, Robert; Day of Deceit, page 11 9 Stinnet, Robert; Day of Deceit, page 11 Bibliography Websites: 1. 2. Book: 3. Day of Deceit, Stinnet, Robert,The Free Press, New York, New York Encyclopedia: 3. World Book, 1989 edition, World Book Inc., Newspaper: 4. New York Times, Dec 8, 1941 edition.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Notes on solitude Essay

Solitude n. the state or situation of being alone. (syn. loneliness? , solitariness, isolation, seclusion, sequestration, withdrawal, privacy, peace) [Google] Solitude is a state of seclusion or isolation, i. e. , lack of contact with people. It may stem from bad relationships, loss of loved ones, deliberate choice,infectious disease,mental disorders,neurological disorders or circumstances of employment or situation (see castaway). Short-term solitude is often valued as a time when one may work, think or rest without being disturbed. It may be desired for the sake of privacy. A distinction has been made between solitude and loneliness. In this sense, these two words refer, respectively, to the joy and the pain of being alone. [wikipedia. org] â€Å"Our language has wisely sensed the two sides of being alone. It has created the word loneliness to express the pain of being alone. And it has created the word solitude to express the glory of being alone. † – Paul Tillich (Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and theologian. ) [wikipedia. org] What is Solitude? By Hara Estroff Marano, published on July 01, 2003 – last reviewed on November 21, 2013 Loneliness is a negative state, marked by a sense of isolation. One feels that something is missing. It is possible to be with people and still feel lonely—perhaps the most bitter form of loneliness. Solitude is the state of being alone without being lonely. It is a positive and constructive state of engagement with oneself. Solitude is desirable, a state of being alone where you provide yourself wonderful and sufficient company. [http://www. psychologytoday. com/articles/200308/what-is-solitude] â€Å"I care for myself. The more solitary, the more friendless, the more unsustained I am, the more I will respect myself. † ?Charlotte Bronte,Jane Eyre â€Å"If you’re lonely when you’re alone, you’re in bad company. † ?Jean-Paul Sartre â€Å"The more powerful and original a mind, the more it will incline towards the religion of solitude. † ?Aldous Huxley â€Å"I live in that solitude which is painful in youth, but delicious in the years of maturity. † ?Albert Einstein â€Å"A man can be himself only so long as he is alone; and if he does not love solitude, he will not love freedom; for it is only when he is alone that he is really free. † ?Arthur Schopenhauer,Essays and Aphorisms â€Å"Whosoever is delighted in solitude, is either a wild beast or a god. † ?Aristotle â€Å"Loneliness is the poverty of self; solitude is richness of self. † ?May Sarton â€Å"I am now quite cured of seeking pleasure in society, be it country or town. A sensible man ought to find sufficient company in himself. † ?Emily Bronte,Wuthering Heights â€Å"Our language has wisely sensed these two sides of man’s being alone. It has created the word â€Å"loneliness† to express the pain of being alone. And it has created the word â€Å"solitude† to express the glory of being alone. Although, in daily life, we do not always distinguish these words, we should do so consistently and thus deepen our understanding of our human predicament. † ?Paul Tillich, The Eternal Now (Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1963 ) â€Å"According to greek mythology, humans were originally created with 4 arms, 4 legs and a head with two faces. Fearing their power, zeus split them into two separate parts, condemning them to spend their lives in search of their other halves. †? Plato â€Å"To Solitude O solitude! if I must with thee dwell, Let it not be among the jumbled heap. Of murky buildings; climb with me the steep,— Nature’s observatory—whence the dell, Its flowery slopes, its river’s crystal swell, May seem a span; let me thy vigils keep ‘Mongst boughs pavillion’d, where the deer’s swift leap Startles the wild bee from the fox-glove bell. But though I’ll gladly trace these scenes with thee, Yet the sweet converse of an innocent mind, Whose words are images of thoughts refin’d, Is my soul’s pleasure; and it sure must be Almost the highest bliss of human-kind, When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee. † ?John Keats Etymology solitude (n. ) mid-14c. , from Old French solitude†loneliness† (14c. ) and directly from Latin solitudinem (nominativesolitudo) â€Å"loneliness, a being alone; lonely place, desert, wilderness,† from solus†alone† â€Å"Not in common use in English until the 17th c. † [OED] A man can be himself only so long as he is alone; †¦ if he does not love solitude, he will not love freedom; for it is only when he is alone that he is really free. [Schopenhauer, â€Å"The World as Will and Idea,† 1818] Solitudinarian†recluse, unsocial person† is recorded from 1690s. Happy the man, whose wish and care A few paternal acres bound, Content to breathe his native air, In his own ground. Whose heards with milk, whose fields with bread, Whose flocks supply him with attire, Whose trees in summer yield him shade, In winter fire. Blest! who can unconcern’dly find Hours, days, and years slide soft away, In health of body, peace of mind, Quiet by day, Sound sleep by night; study and ease Together mix’d; sweet recreation, And innocence, which most does please, With meditation. Thus let me live, unseen, unknown; Thus unlamented let me dye; Steal from the world, and not a stone Tell where I lye. Ode to Solitude, Alexander Pope.

Thursday, October 10, 2019


Chapter 2 – Why Security is NeededTRUE/FALSE 1. Information security’s primary mission is to ensure that systems and their contents retain their confidentiality at all costs. ANS:FPTS:1 2. Information security safeguards the technology assets in use at the organization. ANS:TPTS:1 3. A firewall is a mechanism that keeps certain kinds of network traffic out of a private network. ANS:TPTS:1 4. An act of theft performed by a hacker falls into the category of â€Å"theft,† but is also often accompanied by defacement actions to delay discovery and thus may also be placed within the category of â€Å"forces of nature. ANS:FPTS:1 5. Two watchdog organizations that investigate allegations of software abuse: SIIA and NSA. ANS:FPTS:1 6. A number of technical mechanisms—digital watermarks and embedded code, copyright codes, and even the intentional placement of bad sectors on software media—have been used to enforce copyright laws. ANS:TPTS:1 7. A worm requires that another program is running before it can begin functioning. ANS:FPTS:1 8. A worm can deposit copies of itself onto all Web servers that the infected system can reach, so that users who subsequently visit those sites become infected. ANS:TPTS:1 9. Attacks conducted by scripts are usually unpredictable. ANS:FPTS:1 10. Expert hackers are extremely talented individuals who usually devote lots of time and energy to attempting to break into other people’s information systems. ANS:TPTS:1 11. With the removal of copyright protection, software can be easily distributed and installed. ANS:TPTS:1 12. Forces of nature, force majeure, or acts of God can present some of the most dangerous threats, because they are usually occur with very little warning and are beyond the control of people. ANS:TPTS:1 13.Much human error or failure can be prevented with training and ongoing awareness activities. ANS:TPTS:1 14. Compared to Web site defacement, vandalism within a network is less malicious in intent and more public. ANS:FPTS:1 15. With electronic information is stolen, the crime is readily apparent. ANS:FPTS:1 16. Organizations can use dictionaries to disallow passwords during the reset process and thus guard against easy-to-guess passwords. ANS:TPTS:1 17. DoS attacks cannot be launched against routers. ANS:FPTS:1 18. A mail bomb is a form of DoS. ANS:TPTS:1 19.A sniffer program shows all the data going by on a network segment including passwords, the data inside files—such as word-processing documents—and screens full of sensitive data from applications. ANS:TPTS:1 20. A timing attack involves the interception of cryptographic elements to determine keys and encryption algorithms. ANS:TPTS:1 MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE 1. Intellectual property is defined as â€Å"the ownership of ideas and control over the tangible or virtual representation of those ideas. † _________________________ ANS:TPTS:1 2. The macro virus infects the key operating system files located in a computer’s boot sector. ________________________ ANS:F, boot PTS:1 3. Once a(n) back door has infected a computer, it can redistribute itself to all e-mail addresses found on the infected system. _________________________ ANS:F virus worm PTS:1 4. A(n) polymorphic threat is one that over time changes the way it appears to antivirus software programs, making it undetectable by techniques that look for preconfigured signatures. _________________________ ANS:TPTS:1 5. When voltage levels surge (experience a momentary increase), the extra voltage can severely damage or destroy equipment. ________________________ ANS:F, spike PTS:1 6. The shoulder looking technique is used in public or semipublic settings when individuals gather information they are not authorized to have by looking over another individual’s shoulder or viewing the information from a distance. _________________________ ANS:F, surfing PTS:1 7. Hackers are â€Å"people who use and create computer software to gain access to information illegally. † _________________________ ANS:TPTS:1 8. Packet kiddies use automated exploits to engage in distributed denial-of-service attacks. _________________________ ANS:F, monkeys PTS:1 9. The term phreaker is now commonly associated with an individual who cracks or removes software protection that is designed to prevent unauthorized duplication. _________________________ ANS:F, cracker PTS:1 10. Cyberterrorists hack systems to conduct terrorist activities via network or Internet pathways. _________________________ ANS:TPTS:1 11. The malicious code attack includes the execution of viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and active Web scripts with the intent to destroy or steal information. _________________________ ANS:TPTS:1 12.The application of computing and network resources to try every possible combination of options of a password is called a brute crack attack. _________________________ ANS:F, force PTS:1 13. One form of e-mail attack that is also a DoS is called a mail spoof, in which an attacker routes large quantities of e-mail to the target. _________________________ ANS:F, bomb PTS:1 14. Sniffers often work on TCP/IP networks, where they’re sometimes called packet sniffers. _________________________ ANS:TPTS:1 15. A(n) cookie can allow an attacker to collect information on how to access password-protected sites. ________________________ ANS:TPTS:1 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following functions does information security perform for an organization?a. Protecting the organization’s ability to function.b. Enabling the safe operation of applications implemented on the organization’s IT systems.c. Protecting the data the organization collects and uses.d. All of the above.ANS:DPTS:1 2. ____ is an integrated system of software, encryption methodologies, and legal agreements that can be used to support the entire information infrastructure of an organization.a. SSLb. PKIc. PKCd. SISANS:BPTS:1 3. ____ are software programs that hide their true nature, and reveal their designed behavior only when activated.a. Virusesb. Wormsc. Spamd. Trojan horsesANS:DPTS:1 4. Which of the following is an example of a Trojan horse program?a. Netskyb. MyDoomc. Klezd. Happy99. exeANS:DPTS:1 5. As frustrating as viruses and worms are, perhaps more time and money is spent on resolving virus ____.a. false alarmsb. power faultsc. hoaxesd. urban legendsANS:CPTS:1 6. Web hosting services are usually arranged with an agreement providing minimum service levels known as a(n) ____.a. SSLb. SLAc. MSLd. MINANS:BPTS:1 7. Complete loss of power for a moment is known as a ____.a. sagb. faultc. brownoutd. blackoutANS:BPTS:1 8. Acts of ____ can lead to unauthorized real or virtual actions that enable information gatherers to enter premises or systems they have not been authorized to enter.a. bypassb. naturec. trespassd. securityANS:CPTS:1 9. There are generally two skill levels among hackers: expert and ____.a. noviceb. journeymanc. packet monkeyd. professionalANS:APTS:1 10.One form of online vandalism is ____ operations, which interfere with or disrupt systems to protest the operations, policies, or actions of an organization or government agency.a. hacktivistb. phvistc. hackcyberd. cyberhackANS:APTS:1 11. According to Mark Pollitt, ____ is the premeditated, politically motivated attacks against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which result in violence against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.a. infoterrorismb. cyberterrorismc. hackingd. crackingANS:BPTS:1 12. ___ is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge.a. A botb. Spywarec. Trojand. WormANS:BPTS:1 13. The ____ data file contains the hashed representation of the user’s password.a. SLAb. SNMPc. FBId. SAMANS:DPTS:1 14. In a ____ attack, the attacker sends a large number of connection or information requests to a target.a. denial-of-serviceb. distributed denial-of-servicec. virusd. spamANS:APTS:1 15. A ____ is an attack in which a coordinated stream of requests is launched against a target from many locations at the same time.a. denial-of-serviceb. distributed denial-of-servicec. virusd. spamANS:BPTS:1 16. ____ are machines that are directed remotely (usually by a transmitted command) by the attacker to participate in an attack.a. Dronesb. Helpersc. Zombiesd. ServantsANS:CPTS:1 17. In the well-known ____ attack, an attacker monitors (or sniffs) packets from the network, modifies them, and inserts them back into the network.a. zombie-in-the-middleb. sniff-in-the-middlec. server-in-the-middled. man-in-the-middleANS:DPTS:1 18.The ____ hijacking attack uses IP spoofing to enable an attacker to impersonate another entity on the network.a. WWWb. TCPc. FTPd. HTTPANS:BPTS:1 19. â€Å"4-1-9† fraud is an example of a ____ attack.a. social engineeringb. virusc. wormd. spamANS:APTS:1 20. Microsoft acknowledged that if you type a res:// URL (a Microsoft-devised type of URL) which is longer than ____ characters in Internet Explorer 4. 0, the browser will crash.a. 64b. 128c. 256d. 512ANS:CPTS:1 COMPLETION 1. A(n) ____________________ is an object, person, or other entity that represents an ongoing danger to an asset. ANS:threat PTS:1 2. Duplication of software-based intellectual property is more commonly known as software ____________________. ANS:piracy PTS:1 3. A computer virus consists of segments of code that perform ____________________ actions. ANS:malicious PTS:1 4. A(n) ____________________ is a malicious program that replicates itself constantly, without requiring another program environment. ANS:worm PTS:1 5. A virus or worm can have a payload that installs a(n) ____________________ door or trap door component in a system, which allows the attacker to access the system at will with special privileges.ANS:back PTS:1 6. A momentary low voltage is called a(n) ____________________. ANS:sag PTS:1 7. Some information gathering techniques are quite legal, for example, using a Web browser to perform market research. These legal techniques are called, collectively, competitive ____________________. ANS:intelligence PTS:1 8. When information gatherers employ techniques that cross the threshold of what is legal or ethical, they are conducting industrial ____________________. ANS:espionage PTS:1 9. The expert hacker sometimes is called ____________________ hacker. ANS:elite PTS:1 10.Script ____________________ are hackers of limited skill who use expertly written software to attack a system. ANS:kiddies PTS:1 11. A(n) ____________________ hacks the public telephone network to make free calls or disrupt services. ANS:phreaker PTS:1 12. ESD means electrostatic ____________________. ANS:discharge PTS:1 13. A(n) ____________________ is an act that takes advantage of a vulnerability to compromise a controlled system. ANS:attack PTS:1 14. A(n) ____________________ is an identified weakness in a controlled system, where controls are not present or are no longer effective. ANS:vulnerability PTS:1 15. Attempting to reverse-calculate a password is called ____________________. ANS:cracking PTS:1 16. ____________________ is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers, wherein the intruder sends messages with a source IP address that has been forged to indicate that the messages are coming from a trusted host. ANS:Spoofing PTS:1 17. ____________________ is unsolicited commercial e-mail. ANS:Spam PTS:1 18. In the context of information security, ____________________ is the process of using social skills to convince people to reveal access credentials or other valuable information to the attacker.ANS:social engineering PTS:1 19. The timing attack explores the contents of a Web browser’s ____________________. ANS:cache PTS:1 20. A(n) ____________________ is an application error that occurs when more data is sent to a program buffer than it is designed to handle. ANS: buffer overrun buffer overflow PTS:1 ESSAY 1. List at least six general categories of threat. ANS: Compromises to intellectual property : piracy, copyright infringement Software attacks : viruses, worms macros, denial of service Deviations in quality of service : ISP, power, or wan service issues from service providers Espionage or trespass : unauthorized access and /or data collection Sabotage or vandalism : destruction of system or information Forces of nature Human error or failure Information extortion Missing, inadequate, or incomplete Missing, inadequate, or incomplete controls Theft Technical hardware failures or errors Technical software failures or errors Technological obsolescence PTS:1 2. Describe viruses and worms. ANS: A computer virus consists of segments of code that perform malicious actions. The code attaches itself to the existing program and takes control of that program’s access to the targeted computer. The virus-controlled target program then carries out the virus’s plan, by replicating itself into additional targeted systems. A worm is a malicious program that replicates itself constantly, without requiring another program to provide a safe environment for replication. Worms can continue replicating themselves until they completely fill available resources, such as memory, hard drive space, and network bandwidth. PTS:1 3. Describe the capabilities of a sniffer. ANS:A sniffer is a program or device that can monitor data traveling over a network. Sniffers can be used both for legitimate network management functions and for stealing information from a network. Unauthorized sniffers can be extremely dangerous to a network’s security, because they are virtually impossible to detect and can be inserted almost anywhere. Sniffers often work on TCP/IP networks, where they’re sometimes called packet sniffers. A sniffer program shows all the data going by, including passwords, the data inside files and screens full of sensitive data from applications. PTS:1

Discrimination Concerning African Americans Essay

Differences in race lead to divergent levels of economic development within the United States. Analysts often try to explain this phenomenon by observing a specific ethnic group’s tradition and cultural ideology. Economists expand their analysis on the economic behaviors of African Americans by taking into consideration personal histories and value systems of the group under study. American families measure economic status in terms of income, and factors associated with material security as a whole. These factors may consist of health care, college funds, and retirement plans. However, African American families lag well behind when conceptualizing economic development under these terms. The reason is due to numerous instances of discrimination that occur in the U. S. Many of America’s public policies aid in the underdevelopment of non-white families. Increased economic development within America is the key to upward political and social mobility. If minorities are denied inevitable rights to equality, access to economic development becomes a highly difficult process. Despite America’s idealized view on equal opportunity, it is valid to assume that economic security has been limited on the basis of race. Therefore, it is important to investigate why white American families are economically better-off than non-white American families. One must take into account aspects of political participation, education, and the number of children a family has in the home in order to understand this research question. Contemporary Viewpoints: The lack of political participation of minority groups is a prevalent issue within the United States, explaining why non-white American families are less economically developed when compared to white American families. According to Douglas S. Massey (1995), minority families increasingly speak languages and bear cultures quite different than the established norms within the U. S. regime. He has found that ethnic groups carry their customs into new generations, leading many non-white families to become displaced and impoverished. Brinck Kerr and Will Miller (1997) believe that it is necessary for non-white American families to participate in elections in order to obtain equal representation that they are now lacking. They go on to say that political representation is the key to higher employment levels, and is a significant determinant to the minority share of professional positions. William H. Frey (1996) finds that immigrants usually encounter highly stratified society characterized by high income inequality leaving little room for upward mobility. In addition, Paula D. Mcklain (1990) assumes that non-white American families will continue to reside in low economic subcultures that are institutionally incomplete if they are represented at much lower ratios relative to the population portions of whites. Susan Welch (1990) has found that minority groups have not even achieved half their population proportions in political elections. These numbers are even lower than what they were a decade ago. She states that other factors that lead to low political participation within minority groups is that a substantial number of non-white American families are not citizens, and therefore are not eligible to vote. Also, Massey has found that America enacts policies that hinder the socioeconomic status of immigrants for they are underrepresented at virtually all levels and institutions in United States government. Moreover, Friedberg and Hunt (1995) have found that non-white American families receive less benefits than white families because of geographic segregation within the community. The various dispersion of minority families in different low-income areas within the U. S. makes it difficult for these families to be represented proportionally. Consequently, Rodney E. Hero and Caroline J. Tolbert (1995) believe minority families can now be easily manipulated by government because they are not equally accounted for. Therefore, non-white American families are not able to take advantage of economically developed determinants such as health care and retirement funds. The inscription of the Statue of liberty expresses to the world to â€Å"give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free†¦. † America continuously contradicts itself on the validity of this concept due to the increasingly economic tension between Caucasian and non-white families. Friedberg and Hunt (1995) give the example of Proposition 187, which makes many non-white American families ineligible for certain services such as public health. Non-white American families are not given the opportunity to take advantage of benefactors the U. S. offers to white American families. Therefore, Non-white American families lack of political participation, and unequal representation in governmental institutions and legislative bodies, leads them to be less economically developed than white American families. Education is another obstacle to economic development that non-white families face. Education is a vital tool to economic security. However, Melissa Marschall (1997) has found that current policies demonstrate minorities have been denied equal access to education. She has found that assignment systems based on assessments of language deficiencies or other individual needs are used to separate non-whites from whites. According to Jeffrey J. Mondack and Diana C. Mutz (1997), inequitable school financing is equally detrimental to non-white students. Funding for public schools comes from property taxes. They go along to say that predomintly non-white schools tend to be in central inner city school districts which have a smaller property tax base. In addition, the Office of Civil Rights has identified practices that are termed â€Å"second generation school discrimination†. Practices such as ability grouping, suspensions, and tracking may appear on the surface to be normal educational practices. When examining these components closer, Brick Kerr and Will Miller (1997) have found they have a negative impact on minority students. Ability grouping is a form of segregation that separates minority students from whites. They have found that before even attempting to teach non-white students, they are diagnosed with having linguistic or intellectual problems. The students are therefore required to take special and bilingual classes, making it difficult for them to succeed. According to Robert E. England (1986), non-white students are many times pulled out of regular classes and placed into bilingual classes only on the basis of ethnicity rather than their understanding of English. Brick and Miller go on to explain that suspensions are a second tactic used to encourage the failure of minority students in school. Non-white students are given more harsh disciplinary sentences than white students. Moreover, studies show that the ratio of minority students kicked out of school is disproportionately higher than whites, making the students more likely to drop out. Marschall has found that schools also advocate differences in ability grouping and discipline, leading to distinctions in tracking between non-whites and whites. The majority white students in high ability groups are often counseled to choose college preparatory tracks. However, minorities in low ability groups are counseled into vocational or general tracks, making them less likely to attend post-secondary education. Mondack and Mutz believe that the overall pattern of racial inequality the school system has created makes non-whites less likely to receive a quality education than whites. This truth makes it difficult for economic development to occur within non-white American families. The number of children in a family lead to increased poverty levels and low economic development within non-white American families. M. Klitsch (1990) has found that minority women have children at an extensively higher rate than that of white women. Also, he states that non-white women represent a small percentage of the population, however they account for a greater number of births. Alejandro Portes and Cynthia Truelove (1987) go on to say that non-white families are generally poorer than white families because of the higher number of children in the home. This leads them to be more likely to live below the poverty line. In addition, Genevieve M. Kenney and Nancy E. Reichman (1998) have found the population of non-whites increases faster than whites every year due to high fertility rates. Similarly, the two have found that fertility rates of non-whites families living in impoverished communities is almost double compared to white families. Klitsch has found that non-white families have an estimated 5. 5 people to a household, while white families only 3. 8. Therefore, these high rates lead to low socioeconomic status, and limited opportunities to increase economic security. According to Kenney and Reichman, the high fertility rates are due to low percentages of minorities who use contraceptives. They have also found that non-white women are less likely to have an abortion than white women. One might view this as a positive aspect. However, Portes and Truelove believe that one must take into account the over a quarter of minority families who have an income below the federal poverty line, which is almost one half greater than those of white families. Therefore, the high number of children within non-white American families make them more likely to experience economic deprivation than white American families. There has been an abundance of scholarly research previously conducted on the economic differences between white and non-white American families. They usually consist of data sources such as the U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, and the U. S. bureau of the Census. The Foreign Born Population of the United States and Statistical Reports are used with the previously listed sources to compare ethnic groups (Friedberg and Hunt, pg. 5). These databases yield cross-sectional designs that develop into time series reports in order to make assumptions on variables dealing with GNP and income, proving distinct differences in the races under study. For instance, researchers assume that white families are more economically developed than non-whites. This is because the average white American family makes $44,000 a year, and the average non-white American family does not make half this amount (6-7). These figures are valid in drawing conclusions about correlative relationships, satisfying important ideological factors necessary to study when dealing with the dependent variable of race. A more effective method of analysis was a study derived from interviews in a low income Los Angeles county. The participants were white and non-white females. The study was conducted between January 1984 and May 1985 (M. Kitsch, 136-137). In addition, the sample consisted of a three-stage cluster of census tracks, blocks, and household addresses. This cross-sectional design embodied research dealing with fertility rates of different races. The minority women proved to have higher fertility rates in low income sectors, leading Klitsch to question the different ways non-white American families conceptualize economic development. Non-white American families have to deal with numerous accounts of racial discrimination. It is difficult for a non-white American family to become economically stable in terms of income and security plans. The reason is due to being a minority in a predominately white America. Therefore, non-white American families are less economically developed than white American families because: H1 non-white American families are less likely to participate in elections than white American families. H2 non-white Americans are more likely to be discriminated against in school than white Americans. H3 the more children in a household, the more likely a family will be economically deprived. Implications and Conclusion: Education, political participation, and the number of children a family has all affect the levels of economic development within the household for white American families. Even though education levels has a stronger affect toward higher levels of income, when the three variables are measured together, they are all highly statistically significant. In non-white American homes, education levels appears to be the key determinant of their economic status. Further test need to be measured in reference to how the number of children a family has and political participation affect the economic security of non-white American families. With this, the above hypotheses will prove to have more validity. However, in both cases it was important to measure education, the number of children a family has, and political participation together in order to understand the affect these variables have on each other, and how this affect leads to higher or lower levels of economic development within the family. These multivariate studies are also important in predicting the affect the independent variables will have on total family income in the future. It can be assumed that the highest year of school completed will continue to have a strong affect toward economic development in the future for both white and non-white American families. In addition, the number of children in a white American family and their political participation are significant variables to measure when determining their economic standpoint in future years to come. There are alternative approaches to identifying explanations to why non-white American families are less economically developed than white American families. One example is the difference in income between non-white and white American families who have single parents and ones that have two parents. Another alternative approach is identifying education as only an antecedent variable, and observing how it relates to occupation, the true independent variable under study. From here, one can observe how economic development is related to a person’s occupation within the home. As anyone who walks the streets of America’s largest cities knows, there has been a profound transformation of different ethnic cultures within the United States. The rapidity of the change has led to growing competition of economic development between white and non-white American families. This competition has lead to ethnic prejudice and discrimination as the United States continues to assimilate into the melting pot for the American dream. Political participation, education, and the number of children within the home are variables that allow the transition to become a less arduous process for white American families. However, if non-white American families continue to do poorly in terms of economic development because of these variables, non-whites will continue to lag behind the income scale in comparison to whites. Research along these lines will lead to the study of relative differences between ethnic cultures. An example is the discovery of why almost half the number of minorities return to their country of origin after experiences of economic injustice. Previous research may also benefit other analysis in the field of economics by itemizing fertility rates in terms of the higher number of non-white American families who lack the finances to properly nourish their children. These new variables along with my research can in time become valid determinants in explaining why white American families are economically better off that non-white American families.