Monday, September 30, 2019

Fredrick Jackson Turner Essay

Fredrick Jackson Turner was an American Historian who examined the unique characteristics that defined American Culture.   Turner was a well educated man receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884 and his Masters Degree in 1888.   He continued his education at John Hopkins University and received a PhD in history.   He taught most of his professional life at the University of Wisconsin and then Harvard in 1910.   Rise of the West, and Significance of Sections in American History for which he received the Pulitzer Prize have become standards in the study of American History.    He is most well known for his â€Å"Frontier Thesis† which he developed in 1893.   Shortly, after the United States Census Bureau in 1890 declared the American Frontier officially closed, Jackson’s interest was peaked and he set out to study and analyze America’s relationship with it’s own frontier.   In   1893 he publicly spoke about this thesis in Chicago at the World’s Columbian Exposition. He stated â€Å"Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West.†Ã‚   In 1921, Fredrick Jackson Turner published a full length text titled The Frontier in American History.   In it he explores his thesis which stated â€Å"The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development† (Turner 1)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Turner’s fascination with the frontier and probably   his inspiration for studying and understanding the importance of the American Frontier in American History stems back to his childhood.   He grew up in in Portage, Wisconsin.   His backyard bumped right against the meeting of two bodies of water – Fox River and Wisconsin River.   The small town had many characteristics that would have been found in frontier town.   When he describes his childhood he tells of the Native American teepees where he fished as a boy.   Native Americans were often in   town to sell various pieces of craft and jewelry to the local stores.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To understand America and its culture it was extremely important to understand the frontier and America’s connection to it.   Turner believed that the frontier â€Å"Americanized Americansâ€Å".   This Americanization lasted close to 300 years, starting at the colonization of the New England coast and continuing until the west was completely settled.   The free land offered in the west, the frontier, was a safety net which offered property ownership opportunities to people who traditionally could no afford to own anything.   In the text of The Frontier of American History, he comments â€Å"†So long as free land exists, the opportunity for a competency exists, and economic power secures political power† (Turner 32). Discontent and poverty revolts were almost unheard in those 300 years.   He argues that the frontier produces and shapes a particular type of man who is full â€Å"of coarseness and strength†¦acuteness and inquisitiveness, (of) that practical and inventive turn of mind†¦(full of) restless and nervous energy†¦ that buoyancy and exuberance which comes with freedom.†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Turner 37).   Turner’s believed that the western movement was the main factor contributing to the basis of American’s institutions and culture.   Conditions of living and conquering the wilderness permanently altered the European settlers of the New England coastline to a new national breed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Turner goes on to compare the American Frontier to Europe.   In explaining their similarities, he states† What   the Mediterranean Sea was to   the Greeks, breaking   the bonds of custom,   offering new experiences, calling out new institutions and activities,   the   Ã‚  ever-retreating   frontier has been to   the United States directlyâ€Å" (Turner 38).   Turner continues to explain that to   the while Europe had it’s own frontiers, it effected them â€Å"more remotelyâ€Å". Turner believed that the frontier shaped the American character and the closing of the Western Frontier signified the United States graduating from it’s initial development into something much more mature. Turner summaries by commenting â€Å" four centuries from   the discovery   of America, at   the end of a hundred years of life under   the Constitution,   the   frontier has gone, and with its going has closed   the first period of   Ã‚  American   history† (Turner 38).   In The Frontier of American History, while he writes about America as an example he gives a detailed general explanation that he believes could be used in understanding other nation’s cultural growth patterns.   Fredrick Turner believes that the growth and settlement is the first period of progress in any nation’s development.   This expansion is followed by followed by periods of social and economic development.   Each of which is frontier all it’s own.   Turner explains with an example: Stand at Cumberland Gap and watch the procession of civilization, marching single file–the buffalo following the trail to the salt springs, the Indian, the fur-trader and hunter, the cattle-raiser, the pioneer farmer–and the frontier has passed by. Stand at South Pass in the Rockies a century later and see the same procession with wider intervals between (Turner 12)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   He believed that the American West created the first truly free man.   The European Frontier was nothing more than people recreating Old World values and deferring to authority.   The frontier in America had no law, no authority, and men lived by their wits.   America thinks of it’s frontier as being within the country not at the edge.   There is no line which separates the frontier from settled land.   America’s frontier is transient and terrestrial.  Ã‚   However, the European frontier is fixed, and completely permanent.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Turner’s research and thesis contrasted strikingly with his historic contemporaries who believed that America was based on Europe.   And it was the European historical legacy brought over with the colonists that gave America it’s uniqueness.   Fredrick Turner believed that the American Frontier and the surrounding experiences should be respected and spoke about of with dignity.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Of course there are several flaws in his thesis.   He failed to speak about the effect of the American Frontier on women and minorities.   Turner’s theory was deemed ethnocentric and nationalistic.   His premise also showed a large separation between rural American and the future urban or city culture.  Ã‚   Another problem with his safety net proposal is that it is not true for anything after the Civil War.   In the slavery ridden South many blacks sought refuge in the frontier before the Civil War.   However, after the Civl War, the poverty stricken south it was impossible for people to have enough money for transportation, and setting up homesteads in the West. It is important to note that Turner’s Frontier Thesis goes head to head with the theory that slavery was the defining factor in American history.   The government actually gave away more free land after the official closing of the American Frontier than in all the years preceding 1890.   Turner’s thesis and research were not, at the time of it’s original, publication embraced.    Much of that coldness he received from his peers was due to his blunt, forceful nature and writing style.   When he spoke about his â€Å"Frontier Thesis†, he commanded his fellow historians to turn their mindset from European history to the American West.   He comments often that American Historians ‘had it all wrong’ and he was right.   His aggressive preaching may have turned other researchers off to even considering his thesis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fredrick Jackson Turner does a good job of fleshing out his thesis.   I do agree that the American Frontier had a huge effect on defining what America is and who Americans are.   I do think that Turner’s â€Å"Frontier Thesis† has it’s problems which I stated above.   I think it is important to point out that understanding the birth of truly American Ideals you must look at several different theories developed by various Historians.   I agree with the points that Fredrick Turner makes.   Especially concerning how settlers of the frontier needed to be self sufficient and self governing.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Regardless, if historians agree with Turner or agree to disagree the impact of his â€Å"Frontier Thesis, is indisputable.   He introduced the idea that daily events of regular people make up history – that is it is true history.   He nurtured and detailed his belief that the physical land can be a major factor in defining and shaping a culture, particularly the American Culture.   Fredrick Jackson Turner breathed life into the American Western landscape,   letting the Frontier transform from a mere setting to a powerful tool in chiseling the America’s historical and cultural legacy.   Bibliography Hutton, T.R.C. â€Å"Beating a Dead Horse?: The Continuing Presence of Frederick Jackson Turner in Environmental and Western History.† International Social Science Review (2002): 47+. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 . Ritchie, Robert C., and Paul Andrew Hutton, eds. Frontier and Region: Essays in Honor of Martin Ridge. 1st ed. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Press, 1997. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 . Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1921. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 . White, Richard, and Richard White. â€Å"Chapter Ten When Frederick Jackson TurnerAnd Buffalo Bill Cody BothPlayed Chicago in 1893.†Ã‚   Frontier and Region: Essays in Honor of Martin Ridge. Ed. Robert C. Ritchie and Paul Andrew Hutton. 1st ed. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Press, 1997. 201-211. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 .

Sunday, September 29, 2019

I Have a Dream Too Essay

32 years and 364 days before my birth, at Lincoln Memorial over 275,000 people gathered and listened to Dr. Martin Luther King deliver his speech â€Å"I Have a Dream.† During this time, racism was a huge issue in the United States, especially towards African Americans. Among those African Americans was Dr. Martin Luther King, a prominent civil rights activists who inspires our world till this day, especially with his speech â€Å"I Have a Dream.† He spoke about the injustices of segregation and discrimination of African Americans that was taking place in our nation. The reason for â€Å"I Have a Dream† massive impact is due to the tense social mood of the time and giving African Americans a vision for the future. Hitting home for many African American people but what made â€Å"I Have a Dream† so fascinating that even a 16 years Asian American can relate to? I believe it is King’s use of rhetoric and how he is able to appeal to his audiences’ everyday lives. King uses the structure of his rhetoric to appeal to his different audiences and supporting his ideas by using quotations and allusions, repeating key theme words and phrases, and â€Å"grounding† his arguments. The syntax of a speech can be very important, something that King utilizes really well appealing to all three types of people in his audience; the average blacks who are discriminated against, the average whites who harbor thoughts typical of that time who argue that blacks are evil and the civil rights movement is violent, and radical blacks who think the same. He first starts by making the white realize how blacks are in such a terrible positions and make them feel bad of what they have done, but at the same time hitting home in the hearts of blacks. He goes on explaining problems â€Å"One hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years..† Striking home for many African Americans but at the same time causing the whites to be uncomfortable. King then brings in issues about the Declaration of Independence by saying â€Å"This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the â€Å"unalienable Rights† of â€Å"Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.† Then goes on saying that America has denied us of these right. His ability to appeal to his audience really amazed because when you put into perspective of how the people of the time interpreted the speech and to me the message was loud and clear; segregation must end. King also perpetrates his speech with careful thoughts and analysis, a key example of this was King’s utilization of quotations and allusions. He starts out the his speech by invoking the presence of Lincoln, not just with his location but with this â€Å"Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the emancipation proclamation.† This is a strong appeal to ethos and using Lincoln’s credibility to create credibility for himself. Then he moves on to the Constitution with â€Å"Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness† this is also and an appeal to ethos that relates to every American. His use of allusions and quotations didn’t just revolve around the 16th president and the constitution it also reached out in a biblical manner as well. â€Å"for my people have committed two evils: they have forsaken me, the fountain of living water, and dug out cisterns for themselves, cracked cisterns that can hold no wa ter.â€Å" he evokes Jeremiah 2:13. Similar to this the other biblical terms enhance his credibility and builds a relationship with the common whit population that reads the bible. As for me the text was not as powerful but when King delivered the line â€Å"No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until â€Å"justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.† the idea of freedom in my mind became privilege and made me cherish it much more. King like many other juniors in the 21st century learned a rhetorical device known as anaphora, a skill that only King can make history with. King uses this device 8 times throughout his speech but the most memorable of all is near the end of the speech where he starts with â€Å"I Have a Dream†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The line that will stick with generations to come and may have been the reason why Dr. King was assassinated. Though we can grieve over Dr. King’s death but I would rather take the time and analyze why his use of anaphora was so powerful. I believe the lines he used in the formation of his anaphora: â€Å"One hundred years later†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Now is the tim e†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"We must†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"We can never be satisfied†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"I Have a Dream†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"With this faith, †¦Ã¢â‚¬ , and â€Å"Let freedom ring (from) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ , can tell us much of King’s stories and the emphasis through repetition makes these phrases more memorable, and, by extension, make King’s story more memorable. What King also did was the repetition of â€Å"theme† words such as freedom (repeated 20 times), nation (10 times), and America (9 times). This style of writing will be one of the many lessons I will be taking away from this speech. The last I think the most important rhetorical device that King used was his ability to â€Å"ground his arguments. King accomplished this by making numerous geographic references throughout the speech. Including Mississippi, New York, Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Colorado, California, and Tennessee. King uses Mississippi in many occasions to evoke emotions in the blacks because African Americans in Mississippi where treated the worse among all the states and I believe the best line king used was this â€Å"We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote.† Encouraging and informing all American citizens of the predicament tha t is occurring in the great nation of America. This created reliability among the people and connected them even more. Although racism isn’t as large an issue today Dr. King’s speech â€Å"I Have a Dream† managed to inspire a generation of blacks to never give up and made thousands of white Americans bitterly ashamed of their actions, forging a new start for society. Even now, it continues to make generations of people, not just Americans, to give up their racist beliefs and advocate social colorblindness. King’s speech not only had amazing content, but the structure and king’s effective uses of quotations and allusions, use of repeating key theme words and phrases, and â€Å"grounding† his arguments. Taught me a very valuable lesson in both rhetoric and life. Thus from now on I have a dream as well. it is to develop myself and my rhetoric device using.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Modern History – Nazism as Totalitarian

Germany was a totalitarian state, however, only to an extent due to differing perspectives Nazi Germany did not fit the universal criteria of what constitutes totalitarianism. It is unarguably necessary that Germany was ran by a single party, had absolute control over mass communication & media, had a systematic terror & police control as well as total control over the army. However, many have argued that Nazi Germany was not totalitarian as it did not have total control over the economy and Hitler’s role in regime of the Nazism played a significant role in whether or not Germany was totalitarian. Views of Hitler’s role in the Nazi state concerning whether or not Germany was totalitarian changed over time, from when Hitler was the absolute centre and in complete control of Nazism to the view of ‘Working towards the Fuhrer’. Germany was a totalitarian state to an extent. Joseph Goebbel was the Minister for Enlightenment and Propaganda, who strictly repressed all public communications such as censoring all aspects of newspapers, heavy censorship of films, events that were organised to place Nazis’ message in a positive light as well as the effectively using the radio. Radios were cheap and when manufactured, they were preset to Nazi stations only. Through this aspect, civilians were constantly exposed and brainwashed to believe the righteousness of the principles of Nazism such as broadcasting Hitler’s speeches in full and placing glorifying Nazis. Newspaper editors were told daily of what stories were to be published, opinions to be expressed and even graphics. The ‘Fuhrer Myth’ played a significant role in Nazi propaganda: it portrayed Hitler to be a man who was born to lead Germany, ordinary yet extraordinary. Hitler had ended the Depression; he was anti-Marxist, thus he would save Germany from Communism; and he was willing to take action to save Germany from hated aspects such the Treaty of Versailles. The image portrayed was propaganda and was more or less a lie, thus proving that Nazi Germany was a totalitarian state. Hitler had learnt a lesson in 1923, to gain power and popularity he must gain it through the legal processes. After the series of events that lead to Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor, he legally pushed out any parties that had any possible means of opposition out of the framework of Nazi Germany, therefore leaving no room for individuality. The sworn personal allegiance of the army to Hitler is also another factor that confirms that Nazi Germany was a totalitarian state. It is evident to understand that there are concepts in which Nazi Germany is not considered to be a totalitarian state. There are different viewpoints of Germany that determines whether or not Germany was a totalitarian state during the Nazi regime. One viewpoint is that Hitler was the absolute centre and in complete control of Nazism. This idea established that all aspects during his rule went with the direct consent from Hitler himself, no policies were made without the reference of his ideology and all successes & problems could be Hitler’s responsibility. This aspect showed historians that Nazi Germany was a totalitarian state: Hitler had detailed understanding of specific situations, the public’s grievances, Europe’s fear of communism, gaining power through legal proceedings and the importance of the link between terror and propaganda in which he used to his advantage to seize control over the entire country. This perspective is contrasted with the modern viewpoint of ‘Working towards the Fuhrer’. Hitler was not interested in the day to day running of things, his attention was mainly concentrated on his ‘will’ and his plan for Germany which was a basis that took Germany forward. Often, Hitler would not make decisions hence leaving situations pending. Due to this issue, policy makers had to create or amend programs and policies that followed the in line of Hitler’s way of thinking. This concept explained the reasons why the regime become more radical as time wore on. Hitler’s beliefs such as ridding the Jews, destroying the Bolsheviks, creating the Aryan race lead to such events such as the Night of the Broken Glass and killings of those who did not fit the criteria of the Aryan description. The idea that Hitler was seen to above the day to day running of things, played a part in demonstrating the ‘Fuhrer Myth’ proved that he was beyond reproach thus, his followers must followed his line of thinking. This viewpoint shows that despite having complete control over media and communication, Germany was a totalitarian state, only to an extent. Another aspect that constitutes a totalitarian state is that it must have an official ideology. Nazi Germany, despite every civilian owning ‘Mein Kampf’, did not have an official ideology like the Soviet Union, which in theory, wanted a classless society. Nazism was a cluster of disassociated ideas that were tied together by Hitler whereas the Soviet Union had Marxism and Communism. As a result of this failure to fill the point of having an official ideology, it shows that Germany was not a totalitarian state. Significant aspects of Nazi Germany proves that it was a totalitarian state, such as its complete control over media and communication, Germany’s evident systematic terror and control as well as power over the army. However, due to differing perspectives, it is clear that Germany was a totalitarian state, only to an extent as it did not have an official ideology, and total control over the economy

Friday, September 27, 2019

Case Study Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Assignment - Case Study Example ement are involved in the operation of computers, and other applications works in the system, which does not jeopardize service provision by these facilities. It is in this note that the computer facilities should be operated with distinct order and adequate security of its servers. The Becoming Company in its networking utilizes the three topologies; that is the star topology, bus topology and the linear topology. It also uses a Sun Microsystems Blade 6048 with 48 server modules as an Internal Gateway helps ease the operation of the company, and beneficial to the company since operating it is easy. Its unique features make the blade powerful, efficient and reliable. The design of 6048 allows it to perform its duties such as database, enterprise operation, high-performance computers and data consolidating and visualization (Bicsi, 2002). These features are coupled to improve the performance of the system. The company has managed to increase and maintain its performance by combining the three topologies to form 3 Internet Gateway web servers S1, S2 and S3. The bus topology (S1), which is the simplest network, is made up of the trunk and segment connecting all computers in the network. The system acts as an operating system, which enables the company transfer data and business transactions carried out effectively and pass through the gateway for processing. In this topology, every system is normally attached to signals over the channel. One computer usually sends data at a time; bus topology, however, is slow in data transmission. This form of arrangement is cheap since it requires short cable and its simplicity and makes it efficient and economical to the company. Data collision does not occur in the system since all networks are connected to a cable terminator (lanoff, 2010). The use of ring topology involve connecting nodes to form a single closed data path, these enables the system achieve high transmission rates than when connections made using bus topology

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Human resource management Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Human resource management - Research Paper Example The performance of each employee has to be observed under the critical eye of the human resource management team. A customized employee policy is followed through the working atmosphere in a company. Appraisals based on their performance and salary administration is maintained to materialize the objective of profit maximization with affirmative action of the employees. In order to hire some personals for a foreign subsidiary firm, different eligibility criterion and experience are notified for selection of a new manager. (What is global management, n.d) Due to globalization and increasing digitalized marketing technology, the issues regarding the management of abroad business has yielded a revolution. In this assignment, the company has to hire a new manager for its Scandinavian division. In this respect the human resource management team has to consider only those qualification and skills to pursue the goal required in the global market. Before hiring a manager for the foreign firm and setting its mandatory qualifications and experience, knowledge about the specified country has to be under the grip of the human resource management. This will help in understanding market scenarios of the country or the region and any political or social risks associated with it. In order to send a qualified person he/she has to learn about the behavior, the culture and the traditional background of the economy. This will enhance not only his intelligent quotient but also comprehend the emotions and sentiments of the residing people. Let us begin w ith the description of the political and social nature of the Scandinavian economy. Three particular countries come under Scandinavian economy. It is a region of Northern Europe incorporating Denmark, Norway, Sweden and frequently Finland and Iceland. Despite of many wars and economical instability in the region, it has been politically sound and culturally valuable. Today, the countries in the

Quantitative Research Manuscript Critique Assignment

Quantitative Research Manuscript Critique - Assignment Example 1365). Among the independent variables includes the effects of emotional intelligence education to the students while the dependent variables included the development of emotional intelligence in children (p. 1367). The research question of the manuscript at hand was â€Å"How did emotional intelligence program affect the emotional intelligence of young children†. To answer the research question at hand, a personal information form research instrument was utilized in the collection of demographic characteristics’ data. The used scale, the Sullivan Emotional Intelligence Scale comprised of scales for children intelligence, empathy scale, and teacher rating scale. These scales, as applied to the present manuscript indicate a validity and reliability of 0.68 to 0.90 and 0.97 to 0.99 respectively (p. 1367). Under the emotional intelligence scale; recognition, understanding, and management of emotions are tested. On the other hand, empathy scale aimed at measuring the empathic reaction of the control group, comprised of children only. The results from the study were collected and entered into an SPSS statistical analysis software where Covariance Analysis was conducted to compare the group that was enrolled to the program and that which was not (pp. 1367-1368). Since the analysis method was experimental in design, the use of T-test was essential. Ulutas, I., & Omeroglu, E. (2007). The Effects of an Emotional Intelligence Education Program on the Emotional Intelligence of Children. Social Behavior and Personality, Vol. 35 No. 10; pp. 1365-1372. Accessed online on November 25, 2014 from

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Essentials of Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Essentials of Marketing - Essay Example Enlightened customers no longer buy into the old strategy that believes a good product sells itself. Marketing has become a well-balanced mix of concepts and techniques, research and sales, promotion and production. Marketing has been described as "[...] the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives" (Lancaster & Reynolds, 1999, p. 1). It is not so much a single task as it is a concept of visualizing your customer through their eyes, and creating a profit by understanding and satisfying their needs by providing something of value (Forsyth, 1999, p.124). Marketing is the companys interface between the customer and other key elements of the organization such as finance, production, and design. This concept remains constant and is unaffected by the product type or market sector. It is a continual process of scanning the environment to glean information about the customer in terms of age, politics, economics, culture, and technology. Todays customer driven company relies less on market manipulation and more on researching the customers desires and buying habits. In the end, it does not matter what you market, where you market it, whether it is a tangible good or a service, domestic or global, the basic marketing processes remain the same (Sandhusen, 2000, p.15). Thomas Eberling, CEO of pharmaceutical giant Novartis, insists that selling medicine is no different than selling soft drinks, and in his words, "[...] both require an in-depth knowledge of consumer behavior" (as cited in Capell, 2001). Understanding customer and market segment behavior is one of the most important elements of marketing. It requires understanding the segment as well as how they react as individuals. Behavior impacts profits and marketers employ extensive research to predict customer reaction to a product. Products that fail are often

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Whatever you see fits Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Whatever you see fits - Essay Example The significance of the Electoral College is imminent in the elections but it is control by the power of the voter. The popular vote on the other hand does not affect the outcome of the presidential elections whatsoever. A presidential candidate may gunner the highest popular vote but trail in the electoral votes; this means they do not have success in the whole election process (Sabato, 34). The popular vote may only be used to examine if or not the United States citizens feel content with the outcome of a particular election. According to Chang the popular vote only has significance in the states where it determines the direction of the electoral votes (122). The Romney Ryan campaign will remain as one of the most strategic and expensive campaign the republicans have ever conducted. This particular campaign clinched the obvious republican states satisfactorily. The campaign failed when it came to the voting in the swing states. Ever presidential candidate has the ability of clinching all the electoral votes in the swing states if they use the correct strategy. In the Romney Ryan campaign the difference was made by the opinion of the republicans on social policies like gay marriages, abortion and issue regarding to women. The democrats won the people’s votes by being sensitive on these issues. If the Romney Ryan campaign was sensitive to these issues, the victory would be theirs for the taking. The Obama Biden campaign on the other hand won because it focused more on populous regions across the nation. Additionally, the campaign focused on satisfying the needs of the minority. The campaign was sensitive to the Hispanics, women and gay couples. This played a major role in ensuring the campaign clinched the majority of the votes in the swing states. With the obvious democrats’ states already in the bag, this move ensured the democrats remained superior also in the swing states.

Monday, September 23, 2019

PM vs HRM Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

PM vs HRM - Essay Example The classical management perspective relied heavily on the placing of tasks and activities on the middle and lower tiers within the organization’s echelon. It focused more on carrying out the tasks at the lower levels and as such there was less accountability and answering when it came to the top management hierarchy present within the organization and indeed running the whole show. The same has changed and that too for the better so to speak. The classical management theory has completely faded out and the contemporary management perspective has superseded it on all counts. At the present, the work is supposed to be carried out by a basis of sharing and caring within the organization’s regimes which was not the case say two decades down the road. The changing market structure might call for changing strategies and lines of action that would all target the people for whom the product is actually designed as well as the competitors with whom the clutter is being broken i n the environs of the marketplace. Thus competition brings in more and more quality at the end of the company with regards to its products as well as more sales in the form of its varied and changed stance on focusing towards the customers rather than the product itself. Every big business or multinational that is existent in present times credits itself on to the vision of an exemplary personality which started it all when the going was tough and when there was a huge competition in the related market. Thus to withstand pressure and competition is the hallmark of any successful and long lasting business, company or enterprise, whichever term we might quote it as. Thus personnel management is more person-centric and focused on the positions that are being filled with employees. These employees have the related strengths and the zest to deliver the goods when it matters the most and hence the reason that they are being given the related opportunities to display their vigor on the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Historical Overview of the Insanity Defense Essay Example for Free

Historical Overview of the Insanity Defense Essay The basic objective of this project is to be able to narrate the history of the creation and use of insanity defense. The theory of using insanity to defend those who are charged with serious criminal acts like murder has been espoused by the proponents of the insanity defense ever since this particular move gained popularity especially among lawyers who successfully defended their clients by winning lesser forms of penalties (sometimes, even early freedom) for their clients by pleading that their clients are insane upon the commission of the crime. The theory in the use of and management of cases where insanity defense is used is, according to George Fletcher (1978) is that the use of insanity defense forces the resolution of our doubts about whether anyone is ever responsible for criminal conduct (Melton, Petrila, Poythress, Slobogin, 2007, p. 774). The theory of the insanity defense is better explained in the MNaghten Rules of 1843 which was created after the attempted assassination of Robert Peel, then the Prime Minister of UK, involving yet again another insane murderer (which was not the first time in UK history). It says: at the time of the commission of the acts constituting the offense, the defendant as a result of a severe mental disease or defect, was unable to appreciate the nature and quality of the wrongfulness of his acts (Moriarty, 2001, p. 153). The following briefly outlines the significant developments in history leading to the establishment of the insanity defense as how it is known today – introduction, theoretical framework, history and the conclusion discussing the impact of the use of insanity defense. History Several notable individuals in history have made insanity as their excuse on why they were able to commit the crime(s) that they were accused of. But this is not to say that this has always been effective. For one, insanity defense was not recognized in some parts of the world in some points in time. Even if it was recognized, not all of those who opted for it was freed or was declared innocent. As early as the seventeenth century, there were already issues involving crime and insanity. For example, Dorothy Talbye was believed to be insane when she murdered her daughter in 1638, but she was not able to use the insanity defense because it was not recognized in the colonial Americas system of justice during that particular era (Rogers, 2008, p. 7). More than a century later, the isolation of the cases wherein insanity is involved and the eventual development of the insanity defense started with the creation of the Criminal Lunatics Act of 1800 which was ratified in the United Kingdom. This move was prompted by the rage expressed by the public after the judicial system in place for managing those who are considered mentally ill or insane resulted in the release of James Hadfield, who declared he was insane or mentally ill when he attempted to murder King George III (Moriarty, 2001, p. 164). Thinking that there are loose ends and potentially problematic areas in managing those who are charged with crime but who are insane, UK finally enacted the Criminal Lunatics Act of 1800. This was followed by the MNaghten Rules of 1843, which influenced many related laws and rules applied in the US justice system before further developments influenced significant changes in how the insane is persecuted or how the justice system accommodates the plea for insanity in defense of criminal charge (Moriarty, 2001, p. 165). Using the insanity defense to escape death was an option for those who are charged with murder not just in the UK, but in the United States as well. As the US justice system progressed, it also made several adjustments when it comes to handling the insanity defense, developments which either complimented/helped or countered the insanity defense. One example is the introduction of the â€Å"irresistible impulse† in the US justice system (particularly in Ohio) in 1834 which explains one side of the insanity defense that despite being aware that the action was illegal, there was still a commission of the act because the individual lost control of his or her action because of mental impairment. This feature has had its run in US but was not enforced in UK at all (Moriarty, 2001, p. 153). There were some developments during the next century after the idea of irresistible impulse was popularized in several court proceedings in the US. By 1954, there was the popular Durham Rule first featured in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit which focused on the characteristic of mental disease and defect leading to the insanity of the accused. But this particular aspect was getting fewer and fewer supporters that by the start of the 1970s it was very seldom used anymore (Mackay, 1995, p. 110). By 1972, the Brawner Rule replaced the Durham rule during the case of the United States versus Brawner in the US Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia Circuit, with the Brawner rule stressing that the Brawner rule reduces the jury role in the proceedings. This development, however, was not considered as a national precedent because it was a circuit case and not a case in the US Supreme Court. The relevance of this rule will be shadowed by the implementation of the Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984 (Thompson, 2007, p. 114). The shift towards drastically reconsidering the design for managing those who are accused of murder but gets away with the plea of insanity in US, like in UK, required a high profile case involving an assassination attempt on an important political leader. In this case, it was the case of John Hinckley Jr. and his assassination attempt on the US president Ronald Reagan and his use of the insanity defense. Because of how easily it seems that Hinckley got away because of the loose ends the insanity defense manages to exploit, the changes in the law (Title 18, U. S. Code, Section 17) now requires those who will use the insanity defense to be able to prove convincingly that he or she is really severely insane (Thompson, 2007, p. 114). In 1986, there was a case in the US (Ford v. Wainright) wherein the impact of insanity defense was reflected once more. In this case, the person who was charged pleaded that he was insane. Because of this, he cannot be executed in lieu of the existing US common law on insane defendants and how this type of individuals cannot be executed even if they are implicated in cases that merit the death sentence (Thompson, 2007, p. 114). Conclusion: Impact of the Use of Insanity Defense When insanity defense became a popular tool for lawyers to use so that their client can have a lesser punishment, there were changes based on how the public as well as the lawmakers have reacted on this predicament. The 1982 Hinckley case prompted the creation of bills as well as initiatives for the insanity defense to be revised. The United States Congress was involved, as well as many local state governments. Media entity saw that this topic has captured the attention of the public, and wanting to know what the people think about it, several polls were conducted and it revealed the sentiments of the public that the use of insanity defense often meant that justice was not served and that because of this practice many guilty people are being set free instead of being punished (Melton, Petrila, Poythress, Slobogin, 2007, p. 774).

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Evolution Of The Principle Of Comparative Advantage Economics Essay

Evolution Of The Principle Of Comparative Advantage Economics Essay From the early 19th century, new outlooks on trade theory have influenced how countries have engaged in production. One of the most significant developments in this area was that of comparative advantage. Comparative advantage refers to the ability of a country to produce one good at a lower opportunity cost than another. Comparative Advantage argues that all countries will gain from trade, even those that are relatively inefficient in the production of goods. All countries will gain, even those with an absolute disadvantage in the production of all goods, as opposed to with Absolute Advantage, which refers to the ability of a country to produce one good at a lower opportunity cost than another. In this essay, I intend to discuss how the theory of comparative advantage has come into being, from its inception in the early 1800s, through the neo classical period and into the modern era. This discussion will look at the variations on the theory proposed by some of the leading economists in the field of international trade, and how they viewed and expanded upon the original law of comparative advantage. In looking at how the law has developed over the past two centuries, my aim is to show the principles uses in describing how international trade is conducted to this day. In the latter sections of the essay, I will refer to empirical evidence that tests if comparative advantage predicts accurately patterns of international trade. Comparative Advantage Adam Smith illustrated an early understanding of the benefits that could be gained by focusing on the production of goods that the population was most efficient at producing: If a foreign country can supply us with a commodity cheaper than we ourselves can make it, better buy it of them with some part of the produce of our own industry, employed in a way in which we have some advantage (Smith,1776,295). This idea demonstrated Smiths understanding of the concept of absolute advantage, whereby gain is realised in exchange between two men who are superior in the production of one good. The principle of comparative advantage was first presented in the work of Robert Torrens in his 1815 Essay on the External Corn Trade, where Torrens discussed Absolute Advantage in substantial detail and explained how it was beneficial for a country to engage in trade for a commodity even if the host country could produce the same good at a lower actual cost than the country it was trading with. However, it is David Ricardo who is widely credited with the first complete formulation of the theory of comparative advantage in 1817. Ricardo recognised that absolute advantage was only a limited version of a more general theory. His early understanding of the theory of comparative advantage is displayed in the quote: Two men can both make shoes and hats, and one is superior to the other in both employments; but in making hats he can only exceed his competitor by one-fifth or 20 per cent; and in making shoes he can excel him by one-third or 33 per cent: will it not be in the interest of both that the superior man should employ himself exclusively in making shoes, and the inferior man in making hats? (Ricardo,1817, p136). The assumptions in his reasoning can be seen in Kemp Okawas review of the formulation of comparative advantage, where they set out a model in which both countries are initially autarkical, then subsequently open up to a free trade environment, that all countries have at their disposal the potential to produce all possible commodities, and that in a state each country involved is able to consume all of these commodities. (2006,468). John Aldrich was recorded as saying, Torrens, Ricardo and Mill all made contributions to the discovery of comparative advantage, not by a major multiple discovery but through a sequence of insights and arguments (Aldrich, 2004, 379). James Mill studied and subsequently ratified Ricardos view on the existence and viability of comparative advantage in 1821 when he said When two men have more than they need, it will be a great accommodation to both if they can perform an exchange of a part of the food of the one for a part of the cloth of the other, and so in other cases (1821,63). In his treatment of the principle, he provided one of the clearest explanations and examinations of the workings of comparative advantage, rectifying much of the ambiguity of Ricardos exposition. His work enhanced the status of the principle of comparative advantage in economic circles by illustrating its viability through the use of numerous numerical examples. John Stuart Mill, son of James Mill, studied and subsequently made refinements to the theorem introduced by his father. Through his work, comparative advantage gained more universal acceptance as an explanation of the benefits of trade in the mid 19th century. He was responsible for the rational reconstruction of Ricardo in which the labour cost coefficients were interpreted as the amounts used in each unit of a good produced rather than Ricardos labour cost of producing the amounts contained in a typical trading bundle'(Ruffin,2002,727-748). Some of Mills most prominent work in the field of comparative advantage can be seen in his 1844 Theory of international values which aided the economic community to come to a fuller understanding and appreciation of the centrality of comparative cost in trade theory (Gomes,2003). In 1930, Gottfried Haberler of the neo-classical school of economics provided a modern interpretation of the theory of comparative advantage which generalised and separated it from David Ricardos labour theory of value, helping to form the foundations of modern trade theory. Haberler believed that it was possible to reformulate the theory in such a way that its analytical value and all conclusions drawn from it are preserved, rendering it at the same time entirely independent of the labor theory of value (Bernhofen,2005,998). His work indicated that comparative advantage is about resource allocation, and adapted it into a more general principle that accommodated non-linear production frontiers. Kemp and Okawa state that Haberler indicated that the relative opportunity costs of producing determines both the direction of free international trade and the manner in which gains from this trade are shared by trading partners (2006,1). The next significant progression in the development of the theory was through the work of two Swedish economists Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin. Their theory examined the reasons behind the differences in comparative costs. The Heckscher-Ohlin model introduced new ideas which differed from the classical approach. Factors of production are taken into account for the first time, of which the two primary ones were labour and land (Eicher, Mutti Turnovsky,2009,68). The theory explains how countries of similar technological levels can trade, how trade affects the distribution of wealth in the economy and how growth in an economy affects trade. Their model was based on two assumptions. Firstly; that countries would no longer differ in terms of technology, but rather by their endowment of factors of production. This meant that countries would be concerned with relative differences in labour and capital abundances compared to their trading partner. The second assumption was that goods differ by the factors of production they require. They explained that the more abundant a factor of production was, the greater the likelihood that it would be cheaper to produce their specialised goods and hence, the opportunity cost of producing goods which were reliant on this factor would be lower in other words, that the source of comparative advantage resided in the factor endowments of a country (Viner,1937). This implies that countries would have a comparative advantage in producing goods that their abundant factor of production. For example, countries with an abundant supply of labour would reap the greatest benefits by focusing their specialism on labour intensive products. The benefits of the H-O theory compared to the theory of comparative advantage were that: it offered; a better means of explaining observed trade patterns, the ability to develop implications about how trade affects wages and returns on capital, it shows the economic growth on trade and it offers a more thorough explanation of political groups on trade. A further development of H-O theory was the Stolper-Samuelson theorem which shows that the owners of scarce/abundant factors are disadvantaged/benefited when an economy opens up for trade and specializes in the production of the good that is intensive in its use of the abundant factor a discovery that was beneficial in the understanding of the politics behind free trade and protectionism. The theory states that during increase in the price of an abundant factor and the fall in the price of the scarce factor, and that the owners of the abundant factor will find their incomes rise the owners of the scarce resource will see their real incomes fall. Rogoff states that their paper was the first to demonstrate the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem in a two good, two country, two factor (labour and capital) model. The H-O theorem shows that with identical technologies at home and abroad, the country with the larger endowment of labour relative to capital should export the labour intensive good. This advancement of the theory aided the thinking about trade between countries with widely different capital-labour ratios. (Rogoff,2005,8). Chipman and Inoue state that for their theory, the following assumptions are made: 1. All trade takes place in a free trade environment, with no transport costs attached. 2. The factors of production, labour and capital, are freely mobile between industries within countries, while at the same time being immobile between countries. 3. The production functions neoclassical and constant over time. 4. The endowment of labour in each country is constant over the two periods (2001,2). Contemporary research by economists such as Helpman Krugman (1985) adapts traditional comparative advantage theory by relaxing some of the assumptions that underlie the contemporary specification of the principle, such as economy of scales and product differentiation. Nowadays, the comparative advantage theory can be further developed by including new aspects, such as specialization, technological differences and aspects of game theory (Tian, 2008). Comparative advantage may appear to be somewhat paradoxical, in the sense that it states that, under a certain set of conditions, a country should produce and export a good that its workforce is not particularly skilled at producing when compared directly to the workforce of another country. However, it holds true when it is explained that when two countries who each hold a comparative advantage in a particular good engage in trade with one another, trade between these nations raises both of their real incomes, on the condition that there is a relative gap between the costs of the same types of products in production by the countries engaging in trade. Ricardos model shows that, if a country wants to maximise gain, it must strive to fully employ all of its resources. It should then allocate its resources to each these resources to its comparative advantage industries, and subsequently, it should aim to operate in a free trade environment, which will benefit all trading partners invol ved. It can be seen how comparative advantage is still a useful and important concept in explaining international trade. Jones and Neary conferred their opinion on the ongoing validity of the theory: While the principle of comparative advantage may thus be defended as a basic explanation of trade patterns, it is not a primitive explanation, since it assumes rather than explains inter-country differences in autarkic relative prices (Reinert, Rajan Glass,2009,199). Revealed comparative advantage is an index devised by Bella Balassa used to calculate the relative advantage or disadvantage a country may have in a specific class or category of goods or services. This advantage can be assessed through analysing trade flows. The index attempts to uncover a revealed comparative advantage by assessing the countrys specialism in exports in relation to others. It is a highly useful means of assessing how useful Comparative advantage is in explaining contemporary trade patterns. A large number of empirical tests of comparative advantage have been undertaken to test the theory of comparative advantage. MacDougall tested the hypothesis that the export ratios of two countries to a third market were a function of labour productivity ratios of the two countries in question. The results were supportive of the Ricardian model, and his work demonstrated that trade between the United States and the United Kingdom in 1937 followed Ricardos prediction. CONCLUSION Throughout this essay, it can be seen how the ideas forged in the original theory of comparative advantage have eminently formed a large part of the basis for understanding how international trade is conducted today. Since its advent, attaining a comparative advantage has been heavily reliant on recognising and exploiting the natural resources and competencies that are present within a country. Even to this day, countries specialise their economies depending on the factors of production that enable them to produce most efficiently, all the while recognising that holding a comparative advantage is a cornerstone of effective trade practices. In the modern era and most likely in the coming years, comparative advantage is likely to continue to become an increasingly more man made factor, with the utilisation of new technologies resulting in the likelihood of significantly increasing production efficiency, and thus affecting the areas on which a country holds an absolute and comparative advantage. Although the original theory of comparative advantage may not subscribe to the current economic environment, it is still a relevant means of determining the most beneficial trading strategy for a countrys economy. Adaptations to the theory since its inception have facilitated the continued utilisation of the idea in the current climate. According to Gale, the changes that have taken place over time are a product of globalisation, for example, new trade barriers and changes in agricultural policy have caused a decrease in some countries manufacturing prowess and has resulted in a subsequent reduction in its comparative advantage (2002,27). The current trend of globalization means that the assumptions associated with comparative advantage are becoming increasingly more difficult to apply.  Ã‚  Despite this, it is still a relevant means of describing international trade patterns today and the ways in which a country can best exploit its natural endowment of resources. To reinforce this point, Paul Samuelson has stated that comparative advantage is the only law of economics which can stand comparison with the laws generated by hard sciences. Modern conditions may cloud our law but, suitably qualified, it still holds (Gray,2000,316). Through my research into the growth of comparative advantage from its inception, I believe that the concept still aptly demonstrates the fundamental importance of the effects, determinants and nature of international trade. Bibliography Aldrich J, Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Volume 26, Number 3, September 2004 (pg 396) (26, 3, 379-399) Bernhofen, Daniel M. (2005), Gottfried Haberlers 1930 Reformulation of Comparative Advantage in Retrospect,   Review of International Economics; Nov2005, Vol. 13 Issue 5, p997-1000, 4p Calhoun, Craig and Gerteis, Joseph (2007) Classical Sociological Theory, Blackwell Publishing Chipman, John S and Inoue, Tadashi (2001), Intertemporal Comparative Advantage, I *(pg. 2) Eicher, Theo S., Mutti John H. and Turnovsky Michelle H (2009), International Economics, Routledge; 1 edition, (pg. 68) Faulkner, David and Segal-Horn, Susan (2004), The economics of international comparative advantage in the modern world, European Business Journal; 2004 1st Quarter, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p20-31, 12p. Gale, Fred (2002) Chinas Food and Agriculture: Issues for the 21st Century / AIB-775, Economic Research Service/USDA (pg27) Gomes, Leonard (2003), The economics and ideology of free trade: a historical review, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd Gray, H (2000) A Review of Maneschi, Andrea, Comparative Advantage in International Trade: A Historical Perspective, International Trade Journal; Fall2000, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p315-320, 6p Kemp, Murray C., and Okawa Masayuki (2006), The Torrens-Ricardo principal of Comparative Advantage: An Extension Review of International Economics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 466-477, August 2006 Maneschi, Andrea (1998) Comparative advantage in international trade: a historical perspective (pg52) Mill, James (1821), Elements of Political Economy, London: Henry G. Bohn   chapter III, pg63 Reinert, Kenneth A., Rajan, Ramkishen S. and Glass, Amy Jocelyn (2009), The Princeton encyclopedia of the world economy, Vol 2, Princeton University Press Rogoff, Kenneth (2005), Paul Samuelsons Contributions to International Economics Harvard University, pg 8 Ruffin, Roy J. (2002) History of Political Economy; Winter2002, Vol. 34 Issue 4, p727-748, 22p Smith Adam (1776) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Hackett Publishing Company Inc. Book IV, Chapter III (IV.3.33) The evolution of the comparative advantage argument for free trade. Tian, Yiqian (2008), A New Idea about Ricardos Comparative Advantage Theory on Condition of Multi-Commodity and Multi-Country International Journal of Business and Management Vol.3, No. 12, December 2008 Viner, Jacob (1937), Studies in the Theory of International Trade, New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, Chapter VIII Introduction In the course of this essay, I intend to outline the development of the principle of the quantity theory of money, from its initial inception in the 16th century right up to the current outlook on the theory in the 21st century. Subsequently I hope to outline the theorys importance as a catalyst for the development of monetarism in the 20th century, and outline how monetarism has progressed since that point in time. The quantity theory of money provides a means of answering the question what gives money value? We know that intrinsically, a bank note is a valueless piece of paper and ink, and that its perceived value stems from the quantity of it in supply. Due to the value of money being variable, a change in money demand or supply will yield a change in the value of money and in the price level. The more money that is in circulation means that each individual bill becomes worth less. This will result in it taking more bills to purchase goods and services, and as a result, price level will increase accordingly. The quantity theory of money states that the value of money is based on the amount of money in the economy that the nominal money supply is a function of the equivalent changes in price levels as it relates to the demand for money necessary to meet the needs of current transactions. For example, in Ireland, according to the theory, when the central bank increases the money supply, the value of money falls and the price level increases. Main body The theory states that a one-time change in the stock of money has no lasting effect on real variables but will lead to a proportionate change in the money price of good. In other words, it declares that moneys value or purchasing power varies inversely with its quantity. To this day, there exists prevalent academic discussion as to who developed the theory. The first possible statement of the quantity theory of money originated in the work of Nicholaus Copernicus In 1526, when Copernicus wrote a study on the value of money, Monetae cudendae ratio, in which he noted the increase in prices following the import of gold and silver from the new world. He expressed the findings of his studies into the value of money, and in this work, he formulated a version of the quantity theory of money. Copernicus observed that the value of money would fall if it was issued to excessive quantities, to the point where it was almost valueless. Volckart notes that Money can lose its value through excessive abundance, if so much silver is coined as to heighten peoples demand for silver bullion. For in this way, the coinages estimation vanishes when it cannot buy as much silver as the money itself contains. The solution is to mint no more coinage until it recovers its par value (1997,433). Jean Bodin took a different stance in the middle of the sixteenth century. In 1568, he drew attention to the influx of gold and silver into Spain, and consequently the rest of Europe, from the Americas. He argued that the price level had risen along with the stock of bullion available for monetary purposes and was able to draw a conclusion about the link between these events. John Locke accepted this idea and stated the Quantity Theory of Money as a general rule, that if the supply of money increased, the prices of all goods will rise. If money supply fell and the prices of goods fell, than the prices of foreign goods would rise relative to domestic goods both of which will keep us poor (Locke, 1692). The first concise statement about the existence of a quantity theory was that made by David Hume in 1752. His theory stated that the general level of prices depended upon the quantity of money currently in circulation. Where coin is in greater plenty; as a greater quantity of it is required to represent the same quantity of goods; it can have no effect, either good or bad that great plenty of money is rather disadvantageous, by raising the price of every kind of labour. (Hume, 1752, Pg 15) He also outlined the relationship between supply of money and prices All augmentation (of gold and silver) has no other effect than to heighten the price of labour and commodities; and even this variation is little more than that of a name (Hume, 1752, 296-7). Alfred Marshalls version of the quantity theory was an attempt to give microeconomic underpinnings to the macroeconomic theory that prices and the quantity of money varied directly. He did this by elaborating a theory of household and firm behaviour and integrating it with the macroeconomic question with the macroeconomic question of the general level of prices to explain the demand for money. Marshall reasoned that households and firms would desire to hold in cash balances a fraction of their money income In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, two versions of the theory competed. One advanced by the American economist Irving Fisher, treated the theory as a complete and self-contained explanation of price level. The other, propounded by the Swedish economist Knut Wicksell, saw it as part of a broader model in which the difference between market and natural rates of interest jointly determine bank money and price level changes. Fisher, in particular spent considerable effort in discussing the temporary effects during the period of transition separately from the permanent or ultimate effects (which) follow after a new equilibrium is established if, indeed, such a condition as equilibrium may be said ever to be established (Fisher,1911,p55-6). In this statement, he finds that the quantity theory will not hold true strictly during transition periods. His work was a forerunner in what would later become known as monetarism. He attempted to take the classical schools equation of exchange and convert it into a general theory of price and price level. The contrasts between the two approaches were striking. Fishers version was consistently quantity theoretic throughout and focused on the classical propositions of neutrality, money-to-price causality, and independence of money supply and demand. By contrast, Wicksells version contained certain elements seemingly at odds with the theory. These elements included a real shock explanation of monetary and price movements, the absence of currency in the hypothetical extreme case of a pure credit economy, and the identity between deposit supply and demand at all price levels in that same pure credit case rendering prices indeterminate. Wicksell tried to develop a theory of money that explained fluctuations in income as well as fluctuations in price levels. He argued that the quantity theory of money failed to explain why the monetary demand for goods exceeds or falls short of the supply of goods in given conditions. The quantify theory fell into disrepute in the 1930s, in part because it seemed at the time that the theory could not explain the Great Depression, and partly because of the publication in 1936 of Keyness theory. Although some economists continued to advocate the quantity theory, many economists became Keynesians and simply viewed the quantity theory as a historical curiosity. Only in the mid and late 1950s did the quantity theory once again emerge as a plausible rival to the Keynesian theory. There were several reasons for the revival. Contrary to the prediction of many Keynesians, upon the conclusion of World War II, the American economy did not revert to the depressed conditions of the 1930s, but instead underwent inflation. Secondly, one of the benefits of the Keynesian revolution had been its demonstration that by manipulating expenditures and taxes, governments can keep the economy close to full employment. In fact, it emerged that there were serious political as well as economic difficulties in actually changing government expenditures and tax rates in this ways, and that Keynesian theory in this area was less useful than it had been thought originally. However the resurgence of the quantity theory should not be attributed merely to impersonal historical events. It is also due to the fact that several influential economists advocated this theory. Don Patinkin of Hebrew University restated the quantity theory in a rigorous way that avoids many of the crudities that infested earlier expositions. Milton Friedman, of the University of Chicago was influential in providing a framework that allowed one to test empirically the proposition that changes in the quantity of money dominate changes in income. Moreover Friedman and Anna Schwartz of the National Bureau of Economic Research argued in a lengthy study that the experience of the Great Depression should be interpreted as confirming the prediction of the quantity theory rather than that of Keynesian theory. Subsequently they showed that in both the United States and Britain, longer run movements in nominal income were highly correlated with movements in the money stock. Despite the resurgence of the Quantity Theory in the 1970s and early 1980s it is still far from universally accepted by economists. Controversies about the theorys validity and applicability still exist, featuring similar questions and themes regarding the Quantity Theory of Money that have arisen since the 18th century. These include the definition of money, the relationship between correlation and causation, and the transmission mechanism. Controversy has continued because of the technical difficulty of sorting out the direction of causation running between money and prices, and because ideological concerns about the viability of market mechanisms are at stake. The first instance of Monetarism stems from the ideas of Irving Fisher. The ideas that produced the quantity theory of money go back to the time of David Hume, and arguably earlier. However, the equation of exchange and the transformation of the quantity theory of money into a tool for making quantitative analyses and predictions of the price level, inflation, and interest rates were due to the contributions of Irving Fisher. The theory provides a theoretical basis for monetarism, and there is empirical evidence to show that the quantity theory does operate. For example, as the Spanish brough gold back from the new world, the money supply increased in their native Spain. In line with the theory, prices rose because there was no corresponding increased in the transactions demand for money which is a function of an increase in output. This initial formulation of monetarism fell short on the question of understanding business cycle fluctuations in employment and output. Due to a flaws and a lack of sophistication of this first form of monetarism, some economists became disillusioned with monetarist analysis. One of these economists, John Maynard Keynes, stated that the quantity-theoretic analysis was of little use expanded on these initial contributions. Many economists agreed with Keyness evaluation of monetarism, most notably Milton Friedman. According to Friedman, there was a belief in the value provided by the quantity theory of money, the quantity theory of money provides the best way of understanding monetary behaviour (1971, 2-3), and that substantial changes in prices and nominal income are almost invariably the result of changes in the nominal supply of money (Friedman, 1968, 434). Following this, came the emergence of the Old Chicago Monetarism of Viner, Simons and Knight. This form of Monetarism emphasised the variability of velocity and its potential correlation with the rate of inflation. In economic policy they blamed monetary forces that caused deflation as the source of depression. According to Viner, in order to remedy economic depression, use of large scale stimulative monetary expansion, large government deficits or policies which encouraged deflation, should be balanced. The exponents of Old Chicago Monetarism did not believe that the velocity of money, in other words the rate at which money is exchanged from one transaction to another, was stable. They also did not believe that control of the money supply was straightforward or that the velocity of money was stable, because inflation lowered and deflation raised the opportunity cost of holding real balances. Classic monetarism emerged from Old Chicago Monetarism. It was described by Friedman in 1953, as well as in the works of Brunner (1968) and Brunner and Meltzer (1972). Classic Monetarism contained elements of institutional reform, analytical thinking and views on the political economy. J. Bradford De Long discusses how classic monetarism contained empirical demonstrations which showed that money demand functions could retain stability under the most extreme hyperinflationary conditions. It contained studies which analysed the limits imposed on stabilization policy by lags of policy instruments and also the belief that the natural rate of unemployment is close to the average rate of unemployment. (2000, 83-94). Political Monetarism argued not that velocity could be made stable if monetary shocks were avoided, but that velocity was in fact already stable. As a result, money stock emerged as a sufficient statistic for forecasting nominal demand. Political Monetarism argued that the central bank controlled shifts in the money supply. As a result, the view was taken that everything that went wrong in the macroeconomy was a direct result of the central bank failing to make the money supply grow at the appropriate rate. Political Monetarism concluded that any policy that does not affect the qu

Friday, September 20, 2019

Dyslexia :: essays research papers

Dyslexia For Children Jimmy’s Story: Jimmy was a 10 year old boy who had done well in school through the third grade. Once he got the fourth grade he was having trouble following the readings as fast as the other children could. He was mixing up words and confusing letters. He was very upset so he told his mom and she decided to check out what was happening. She took Jimmy to the doctor and the doctor had Jimmy take some tests and the doctor discovered that Jimmy had dyslexia. This didn’t mean that Jimmy was stupid, it just meant that he had trouble reading certain words. Jimmy would have to see a special teacher to fix his problem. Facts about dyslexia: 1.Children who are dyslexic are not stupid 2. Dyslexic is a word used to describe children who have trouble putting words together or spelling 3. Although many people may think so, dyslexic people do not see things backwards. 4. Many dyslexic children seem to have good creative skills like drawing, painting or playing a musical instrument. 5. Dyslexia can have more of an affect on one person than it does another or it may have less of an affect on one person or the other. 6. Experts think that 10% of all children have some degree of dyslexia and only 4% have a really bad case of dyslexia. This means that if you have dyslexia, you are not the only one. There are many other children who work with dyslexia everyday. 7. No two dyslexic children are alike. Children who have dyslexia are just like everyone else except they have to work through their reading and writing a little harder. 8. Many famous people have worked through dyslexia for example: Thomas Edison, the inventor of the light bulb; Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain and Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America.(1) Causes of dyslexia: There is no real answer for the cause of dyslexia. Dyslexia is not contagious so you can’t get it from someone else, it is not in something that you eat and it is not a cough or the flu so it won’t hurt you if you have it. Doctors think that dyslexia runs in families, so it might get passed down from your mom or dad when you are born.(1) Solving dyslexia: The best known solution to dyslexia is working with a special teacher and working hard. There are some medicines that are available (ritalin and adirol) that will help you concentrate better but the way to getting past dyslexia is all in the hard work.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

There are NO Just and Holy Wars Essay -- Christian Crusades, Terrorist

War can often be considered an evil act, an act of aggression against another country for economic or social gain, or can be considered a noble event of justice, a defense mechanism of a protectorate country helping a country in need. However, sometimes the issue of war is mingled with religion, which brings the value of war into question. In some religions, war is considered noble and a gateway to heaven. A jihad in Islam is an example of this type, where some Muslims believe that attacking the â€Å"infidel† is considered strong promotion of their religion. However, in many religions the ethics of a Holy War, loosely defined as â€Å"any war that is regarded as a religious act or is in some way set in a direct relation to religion,† (Erdmann 3)) is in a very grey area. Christianity is one of those religions. Starting in the late 11th century, the Christian church started a series of Holy Wars called the Crusades. After looking at the motives for the war and the teachings of Jesus, the supposed basis of Christianity, it seems as if these wars were not actually representative of how Christians should act toward conflict even though they were considered for the good of the church. Onward Christian Soldiers The view of the Church towards war from its inception in the first century until 1095, when Pope Urban II officially called Christians together to fight in the first Crusade, changed drastically according to Thomas Madden (1). In the first hundred years after the death of Christ war was seen for only stately gain by the Roman state, which was persecuting Christians. However, the conversion of Emperor Constantine brought a union between the state and Christianity. War became a necessary tool, but due t... ... I mentioned before, Osama bin Laden proclaimed his attack on the World Trade Center a holy war. While the world looked back and could not understand how this could be considered holy, if one were to look back they could see similarities between the Christian Crusades and the terrorist attacks. When I was looking for websites on just war theory of St. Augustine, nearly every single site I found had a discussion on whether the possible action by the United States in Iraq would be justified according to St. Augustine. Most declared that it would be justified based on the actions of Iraq over the past decade and our status as a world leader with an international council such as the United Nations. It is nice to know that the information from the Crusades can help us now, but I prefer knowing that the Christian church has not repeated its action in the past 500 years.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Othello :: essays research papers

'Othello is a study into the potency of evil' Discuss this view of the play, paying careful attention to Iago's motives and destructive achievements (you should concerntrate on Act III Scene III though you will have to relate it to other parts of the play). Potent in its literal sense means powerful. This essay therefore is based on a statement saying that the play is a study into the power of evil. Evil is conveyed in many different ways in Othello, but they all seem to radiate from Iago. Therefore it would only be appropriate if I did a study into the evil of Iago, and how it affects everything and everybody in the play. Shakespeare conveys Iago's evil in many ways throughout Othello, and shows the methods that Iago uses in order to make Othello trust him. These methods obviously work, shown by the fact that he is repeatedly called honest; I will be commenting on these throughout my essay. He is much like the character 'Vice' from 'miracle plays' of the 16 and 17th Century that tell the audience what their plan is, and so they all become fellow conspirators in a way. This was done well in the production I saw in Manchester, as the actor playing Iago was good and convincing at talking to the crowd and making us realise that it is the enemy within we should fear most. Some people could argue that Iago was extremely lucky to have all the opportunities put in front of him, such as Emilia finding Othello's handkerchief. I, however believe that whatever the situation, Iago would be able to take the situation, and therefore Othello's downfall was imminent. An example of this would be in Act III, Scene III. Iago says, 'Look to your wife; observe her well with Casio,' which is taking advantage of knowing that Desdemona will try to defend Cassio and seem to be in love with him. In adapting to new situations, Iago uses people's strengths and weaknesses, also like in the extract above. This is a sign of his evil, reversing good things and making them bad. Over the course of Act III, Scene III, Iago turns Othello into the same kind of evil person he is. It is almost like a possessive type of evil, like in the old morality or 'miracle' plays I mentioned in a previous paragraph. One of the ways the audience can tell what state of mind Othello is in, and how much Iago's ego has influenced him, is by the his of language.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Old Smoke Essay

Explain how you would handle this situation if you were Charles Renfold. I can relate to some of the typical attitudes that Sheehy reports appear to be in the work environments because I have experienced some of them myself. Some of my former co-workers did not always believe in customer service. They would sometimes deliberately take their time in executing a simple task just because they did not like a certain regular customer who frequents the establishment. Their were some who would watch the every move of a supervisor or manager, hoping that they do or say something wrong, just so they can go and tell their boss. This was done with the intentions hoping to get them in trouble or possibly even terminated. All of this is a product of the cultural environment we work in. Describe the policy on smoking that you would recommend to Redwood Associates. The implications of the work ethic for the future of American business are imminent. A vast number of employees reject the very idea of hard work and long hours. They believe in taking shortcuts or getting something done without much effort, usually by having someone else do it. If the task was a priority for upper level management or the individual would gain some type of recognition for its accomplishment that was the time in which maximum effort was applied. Other than that, most employees would just cruise through the job stuff and wait for the big score. These are just a few of  the implications that are drastically affecting business in America today. Explain how this case would change if what bothers Darlene is not old smoke but the smell of Alice’s perfume or Frank’s body odor. It is more reasonable to expect workers to be more devoted to their jobs, more concerned with quality and customer service; especially with the state of today’s economic situation in this country. For one, it is the right thing to do, regardless of how one may feel about management or the job for that matter. Second, you can not expect to get paid for doing nothing. If you take care of the customer, provide a quality product with service, you retain a regular patron, help the company earn a profit and in the end, probably maintain long term employment. Finally, we all have a moral obligation to do what is right and just. Explain whether it is fair or reasonable for companies to ban employees from smoking in their cars in the company parking lot. The culture of the work environment and peer pressure are significant reasoning behind employee theft. Some employees want to be accepted or fit in with their co-workers. Some of them do not believe that they are paid enough. They would steal from the company to gain acceptance or use it as a means of getting over. They fail to envision the affect revenue loss has on the company as a result of employee theft. It is not my stuff. It belongs to the company. I just work here is the mentality that most employees have. However, if the company or business was ran by them, a family member or someone they knew, they would not allow theft to occur. They would want someone to report it.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Reflection on Chronicles of a Death Foretold

Reflection The cultural and historical context of Marquez life played an important role in his novel Chronicles of a Death Foretold. In the 16th century, Spain colonized many parts of South America and replaced the native religion with Catholicism. While the indigenous cultural practices celebrated openness about sexuality the orthodox Catholic ideals of chastity and purity that penetrated into the local tradition during colonization.The archaic perception of honour was founded on the grounds of the Catholic ideals and it promoted gender inequality and organized crime cultures promoted violence. Marquez offers a critique of the religious system when he describes the arrival of the Bishop who is representative of the power of the Church. In preparation of the Bishop’s arrival the town prepared many cocks which are rather a physical offering to the Church rather than a spiritual offering.The state’s inability to act upon the Vicario’s brother’s action is a M arquez’s critique of the decadence of the Old Christian value system. Father Amador does not condemn the Vicario brothers for their actions but instead he says that they are forgiven on the bases of acting to avenge their sister’s honour. The mayor is also unable to take action and he simply takes away their knives. We also explored the influence of Marquez’s life on his style of writing.The influence of Marquez’s grandmother on his style of â€Å"realism† was also explored. Marquez’s grandmother’s way of telling unlikely stories as if they were facts influenced his style in Chronicles of a Death Foretold. The murder of Santiago Nasar remains a complete mystery until the end of the novel and the episodes that unfold in the story seem extremely unlikely however; the death was accepted by the reader because of factual tone in which it was told. Word Count: 298 Dissociating the allusion elements from their referents

Sunday, September 15, 2019

My Hero In History Essay

â€Å"A hero is a man who does what he can.† (Romaine Rolland) The true definition of hero is a man of distinguished valour. Bravery, courage, boldness, daring, resolute, and aptitude in war are a hero’s characteristics. However, a hero is understood to be different to everyone. â€Å"The legacy of heroes is the memory of a great name and the inheritance of a great example.† (Benjamin Disraeli) Some of them are born, others are made. Many are still living while many others have long been gone. Important dates and events are usually marked red in the calendar to remind us of their birth or death anniversary. During the celebration of these events, program speakers take turns admiring to high heavens whatever good they had done for the county. â€Å"True heroism consists in being superior to the ills of life, in whatever shape they may challenge us to combat† (Napoleon) When one thinks of heroes, names such as Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Allama Iqbal, Muhammad Bin Qasim, and Alexander often come to mind. These people had done a lot of favours, courage, helps, and more of all things for the people who needed them. The definition of heroism changes with the context of time. Heroes of the past are not necessarily heroes of present time and vice versa. But there are some people who have made their mark on history. Among those legends Muhammad Ali Jinnah is my hero. â€Å"Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three.† (Stanley Wolpert) Quad-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah is the founder of Pakistan. He was born in Karachi on 25 December 1876. His father was a merchant. He received early education at Sindh-Madrasa-tul-Islam in Karachi. After that, he passed the matriculation at the age of 16 from Bombay. He moved to England after marriage, at the age of 17. In 1896 he returned to India as barrister when his father’s business was ruined. He started practice in Karachi but soon shifted to Bombay. â€Å"The heroic soul does not sell its justice and its nobleness.† (Ralph Waldo Emerson) He became a member of Indian National Congress. Soon he left the Congress and joined Muslim League when he realized that Congress is not sincere to Muslims. He fought for the rights of Muslims. â€Å"A hero is someone who understands the responsibility that comes with his freedom.† (Bob Dylan) Quaid-e-Azam was a dynamic leader. He devoted himself fully to the affairs of the Muslim  League. He worked for the separate state for the Muslims. He continued his struggle to achieve this object. Pakistan came into being on 14th August 1947. â€Å"Self-trust is the essence of Heroism.† (Ralph Waldo Emerson) Quaid-e-Azam became the first Governor General of Pakistan. He worked day and night for his county. He fell ill and died on 11th September 1948. He was a Muslim and hero. â€Å"A hero is some who has given his or her life to something bigger than oneself.† (Joseph Campbell) Quaid-e-Azam will always live in the hearts of the Pakistanis as† The Father of the Nation.† â€Å"Heroism is the divine relation which, in all times, unties a great man to other men.† His words, â€Å"Unity, Faith and Discipline† will always inspire the people in their struggle for nation building. â€Å"A man of courage is also full of faith.† (Cicero)

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Principles Of Teaching And Learning In Teaching Math Essay

Students learn mathematics through the experiences that teachers provide. Teachers must know and understand deeply the mathematics they are teaching and understand and be committed to their students as learners of mathematics and as human beings. There is no one â€Å"right way† to teach. Nevertheless, much is known about effective mathematics teaching. Selecting and using suitable curricular materials, using appropriate instructional tools and techniques to support learning, and pursuing continuous self-improvement are actions good teachers take every day. The teacher is responsible for creating an intellectual environment in the classroom where serious engagement in mathematical thinking is the norm. Effective teaching requires deciding what aspects of a task to highlight, how to organize and orchestrate the work of students, what questions to ask students having varied levels of expertise, and how to support students without taking over the process of thinking for them. Effective teaching requires continuing efforts to learn and improve. Teachers need to increase their knowledge about mathematics and pedagogy, learn from their students and colleagues, and engage in professional development and self-reflection. Collaborating with others–pairing an experienced teacher with a new teacher or forming a community of teachers–to observe, analyze, and discuss teaching and students’ thinking is a powerful, yet neglected, form of professional development. Teachers need ample opportunities to engage in this kind of continual learning. The working lives of teachers must be structured to allow and support different models of professional development that benefit them and their students. Mathematics Principles and practice What can learning in mathematics enable children and young people to achieve? Mathematics is important in our everyday life, allowing us to make sense of the world around us and to manage our lives. Using mathematics enables us to model real-life situations and make connections and informed predictions. It equips us with the skills we need to interpret and analyse information,  simplify and solve problems, assess risk and make informed decisions. Mathematics plays an important role in areas such as science or technologies, and is vital to research and development in fields such as engineering, computing science, medicine and finance. Learning mathematics gives children and young people access to the wider curriculum and the opportunity to pursue further studies and interests. Because mathematics is rich and stimulating, it engages and fascinates learners of all ages, interests and abilities. Learning mathematics develops logical reasoning, analysis, problem-solving skills, creativity and the ability to think in abstract ways. It uses a universal language of numbers and symbols which allows us to communicate ideas in a concise, unambiguous and rigorous way. To face the challenges of the 21st century, each young person needs to have confidence in using mathematical skills, and Scotland needs both specialist mathematicians and a highly numerate population. Building the Curriculum 1 Mathematics equips us with many of the skills required for life, learning and work. Understanding the part that mathematics plays in almost all aspects of life is crucial. This reinforces the need for mathematics to play an integral part in lifelong learning and be appreciated for the richness it brings. How is the mathematics framework structured? Within the mathematics framework, some statements of experiences and outcomes are also identified as statements of experiences and outcomes in numeracy. These form an important part of the mathematics education of all children and young people as they include many of the numerical and analytical skills required by each of us to function effectively and successfully in everyday life. All teachers with a responsibility for the development of mathematics will be familiar with the role of numeracy within mathematics and with the means by which numeracy is developed across the range of learning  experiences. The numeracy subset of the mathematics experiences and outcomes is also published separately; further information can be found in the numeracy principles and practice paper. The mathematics experiences and outcomes are structured within three main organisers, each of which contains a number of subdivisions: Number, money and measure Estimation and rounding Number and number processes Multiples, factors and primes Powers and roots Fractions, decimal fractions and percentages Money Time Measurement Mathematics – its impact on the world, past, present and future Patterns and relationships Expressions and equations. Shape, position and movement Properties of 2D shapes and 3D objects Angle, symmetry and transformation. Information handling Data and analysis Ideas of chance and uncertainty. The mathematics framework as a whole includes a strong emphasis on the important part mathematics has played, and will continue to play, in the advancement of society, and the relevance it has for daily life. A key feature of the mathematics framework is the development of algebraic thinking from an early stage. Research shows that the earlier algebraic thinking is introduced, the deeper the mathematical understanding will be  and the greater the confidence in using mathematics. Teachers will use the statements of experiences and outcomes in information handling to emphasise the interpretation of statistical information in the world around us and to emphasise the knowledge and skills required to take account of chance and uncertainty when making decisions. The level of achievement at the fourth level has been designed to approximate to that associated with SCQF level 4. What are the features of effective learning and teaching in mathematics? From the early stages onwards, children and young people should experience success in mathematics and develop the confidence to take risks, ask questions and explore alternative solutions without fear of being wrong. They will enjoy exploring and applying mathematical concepts to understand and solve problems, explaining their thinking and presenting their solutions to others in a variety of ways. At all stages, an emphasis on collaborative learning will encourage children to reason logically and creatively through discussion of mathematical ideas and concepts. Through their use of effective questioning and discussion, teachers will use misconceptions and wrong answers as opportunities to improve and deepen children’s understanding of mathematical concepts. The experiences and outcomes encourage learning and teaching approaches that challenge and stimulate children and young people and promote their enjoyment of mathematics. To achieve this, teachers will use a skilful mix of approaches, including:  planned active learning which provides opportunities to observe, explore, investigate, experiment, play, discuss and reflect modelling and scaffolding the development of mathematical thinking skills learning collaboratively and independently  opportunities for discussion, communication and explanation of thinking developing mental agility  using relevant contexts and experiences, familiar to young people making links across the curriculum to show how mathematical concepts are applied in a wide range of contexts, such as those provided by science and social studies using technology in appropriate and effective ways  building on the principles of Assessment is for Learning, ensuring that young people understand the purpose and relevanc e of what they are learning developing problem-solving capabilities and critical thinking skills. Mathematics is at its most powerful when the knowledge and understanding that have been developed are used to solve problems. Problem solving will be at the heart of all our learning and teaching. We should regularly encourage children and young people to explore different options: ‘what would happen if†¦?’ is the fundamental question for teachers and learners to ask as mathematical thinking develops. How will we ensure progression within and through levels? As children and young people develop concepts within mathematics, these will need continual reinforcement and revisiting in order to maintain progression. Teachers can plan this development and progression through providing children and young people with more challenging contexts in which to use their skills. When the experience or outcome spans two levels within a line of development, this will be all the more important. One case in point would be the third level outcome on displaying information. The expectation is that young people will continue to use and refine the skills developed at second level to display charts, graphs and diagrams. The contexts should ensure progression and there are clear opportunities to use other curriculum areas when extending young people’s understanding. What are broad features of assessment in mathematics? (This section should be read alongside the advice for numeracy.) Assessment in mathematics will focus on children and young people’s abilities to work increasingly skilfully with numbers, data and mathematical concepts and processes and use them in a range of contexts. Teachers can gather evidence of progress as part of day-to-day learning about number, money and measurement, shape, position and movement and information handling. The use of specific assessment tasks will be important in assessing progress at key points of learning including transitions. From the early years through to the senior stages, children and young people will demonstrate progress in their skills in interpreting and analysing information, simplifying and solving problems, assessing risk and making informed choices. They will also show evidence of progress through their skills in collaborating and working independently as they observe, explore, experiment with and investigate mathematical problems. Approaches to assessment should identify the extent to which children and young people can apply their skills in their learning, in their daily lives and in preparing for the world of work. Progress will be seen as children and young people demonstrate their competence and confidence in applying mathematical concepts and skills. For example: Do they relish the challenge of number puzzles, patterns and relationships? Can they explain increasingly more abstract ideas of algebraic thinking? Can they successfully carry out mathematical processes and use their developing range of skills and attributes as set out in the experiences and outcomes? As they apply these to problems, can they draw on skills and concepts learned previously? As they tackle problems in unfamiliar contexts, can they confidently identify which skills and concepts are relevant to the problem? Can they then apply their skills accurately and then evaluate their solutions? Can they explain their thinking and demonstrate their understanding of 2D shapes and 3D objects? Can they evaluate data to make informed decisions? Are they developing the capacity to engage with and complete tasks and  assignments? Assessment should also link with other areas of the curriculum, within and outside the classroom, offering children and young people opportunities to develop and demonstrate their understanding of mathematics through social studies, technologies and science, and cultural and enterprise activities. How can I make connections within and beyond mathematics? Within mathematics there are rich opportunities for links among different concepts: a ready example is provided by investigations into area and perimeter which can involve estimation, patterns and relationships and a variety of numbers. When children and young people investigate number processes, there will be regular opportunities to develop mental strategies and mental agility. Teachers will make use of opportunities to develop algebraic thinking and introduce symbols, such as those opportunities afforded at early stages when reinforcing number bonds or later when investigating the sum of the angles in a triangle. There are many opportunities to develop mathematical concepts in all other areas of the curriculum. Patterns and symmetry are fundamental to art and music; time, money and measure regularly occur in modern languages, home economics, design technology and various aspects of health and wellbeing; graphs and charts are regularly used in science and social studies; scale and proportion can be developed within social studies; formulae are used in areas including health and wellbeing, technologies and sciences; while shape, position and movement can be developed in all areas of the curriculum. The Teaching Principle Effective mathematics teaching requires understanding what students know and need to learn and then challenging and supporting them to learn it well. Students learn mathematics through the experiences that teachers provide. Thus, students’ understanding of mathematics, their ability to  » use it to solve problems, and their confidence in, and disposition toward, mathematics are all shaped by the teaching they encounter in school. The improvement of  mathematics education for all students requires effective mathematics teaching in all classrooms. Teaching mathematics well is a complex endeavor, and there are no easy recipes for helping all students learn or for helping all teachers become effective. Nevertheless, much is known about effective mathematics teaching, and this knowledge should guide professional judgment and activity. To be effective, teachers must know and understand deeply the mathematics they are teaching and be able to draw on that knowledge with flexibilit y in their teaching tasks. They need to understand and be committed to their students as learners of mathematics and as human beings and be skillful in choosing from and using a variety of pedagogical and assessment strategies (National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future 1996). In addition, effective teaching requires reflection and continual efforts to seek improvement. Teachers must have frequent and ample opportunities and resources to enhance and refresh their knowledge. Effective teaching requires knowing and understanding mathematics, students as learners, and pedagogical strategies. Teachers need several different kinds of mathematical knowledge—knowledge about the whole domain; deep, flexible knowledge about curriculum goals and about the important ideas that are central to their grade level; knowledge about the challenges students are likely to encounter in learning these ideas; knowledge about how the ideas can be represented to teach them effectively; and knowledge about how s tudents’ understanding can be assessed. This knowledge helps teachers make curricular judgments, respond to students’ questions, and look ahead to where concepts are leading and plan accordingly. Pedagogical knowledge, much of which is acquired and shaped through the practice of teaching, helps teachers understand how students learn mathematics, become facile with a range of different teaching techniques and instructional materials, and organize and manage the classroom. Teachers need to understand the big ideas of mathematics and be able to represent mathematics as a coherent and connected enterprise (Schifter 1999; Ma 1999). Their decisions and their actions in the classroom—all of which affect how well their students learn mathematics—should be based on this knowledge. This kind of knowledge is beyond what most teachers experience in standard preservice mathematics courses in the United States. For example, that fractions can be understood as parts of a whole, the quotient of two integers, or a numb er on a line is  important for mathematics teachers (Ball and Bass forthcoming). Such understanding might be characterized as â€Å"profound understanding of fundamental mathematics† (Ma 1999). Teachers also need to understand the different representations of an idea, the relative strengths and weaknesses of each, and how they are related to one another (Wilson, Shulman, and Richert 1987). They need to know the ideas with which students often have difficulty and ways to help bridge common misunderstandings.  » Effective mathematics teaching requires a serious commitment to the development of students’ understanding of mathematics. Because students learn by connecting new ideas to prior knowledge, teachers must understand what their students already know. Effective teachers know how to ask questions and plan lessons that reveal students’ prior knowledge; they can then design experiences and lessons that respond to, and build on, this knowledge. Teachers have different styles and strategies for helping students learn particular mathematical ideas, and there is no one â€Å"right way† to teach. However, effective teachers recognize that the decisions they make shape students’ mathematical dispositions and can create rich settings for learning. Selecting and using suitable curricular materials, using appropriate instructional tools and techniques, and engaging in reflective practice and continuous self-improvement are actions good teachers take every day. One of the complexities of mathematics teaching is that it must balance purposeful, planned classroom lessons with the ongoing decision making that inevitably occurs as teachers and students encounter unanticipated discoveries or difficulties that lead them into uncharted territory. Teaching mathematics well involves creating, enriching, maintaining, and adapting instruction to move toward mathematical goals, capture and sustain interest, and engage students in building mathematical understanding. Effective teaching requires a challenging and supportive classroom learning environment. Teachers make many choices each day about how the learning environment will be structured and what mathematics will be emphasized. These decisions determine, to a large extent, what students learn. Effective teaching conveys a belief that each student can and is expected to understand mathematics and that each will be supported in his or her efforts to accomplish this goal. Teachers establish and nurture an environment conducive to learning mathematics through the decisions they make, the conversations they orchestrate, and the  physical setting they create. Teachers’ actions are what encourage students to think, question, solve problems, and discuss their ideas, strategies, and solutions. The teacher is responsible for creating an intellectual environment where serious mathematical thinking is the norm. More than just a physical setting with desks, bulletin boards, and posters, the clas sroom environment communicates subtle messages about what is valued in learning and doing mathematics. Are students’ discussion and collaboration encouraged? Are students expected to justify their thinking? If students are to learn to make conjectures, experiment with various approaches to solving problems, construct mathematical arguments and respond to others’ arguments, then creating an environment that fosters these kinds of activities is essential. In effective teaching, worthwhile mathematical tasks are used to introduce important mathematical ideas and to engage and challenge students intellectually. Well-chosen tasks can pique students’ curiosity and draw them into mathematics. The tasks may be connected to the  » real-world experiences of students, or they may arise in contexts that are purely mathematical. Regardless of the context, worthwhile tasks should be intriguing, with a level of challenge that invites speculation and hard work. Such tasks often can be approached in more than one way, such as using an arithmetic counting approach, drawing a geometric diagram and enumerating possibilities, or using algebraic equations, which makes the tasks accessible to students with varied prior knowledge and experience. Worthwhile tasks alone are not sufficient for effective teaching. Teachers must also decide what aspects of a task to highlight, how to organize and orchestrate the work of the students, what questions to ask to challenge those with varied levels of expertise, and how to support students without taking over the process of thinking for them and thus eliminating the challenge. Opportunities to reflect on and refine instructional practice—during class and outside class, alone and with others—are crucial in the vision of school mathematics outlined in Principles and Standards. To improve their mathematics instruction, teachers must be able to analyze what they and their students are doing and consider how those actions are affecting students’ learning. Using a variety of strategies, teachers should monitor students’ capacity and inclination to analyze situations, frame and solve problems, and make sense of mathematical concepts and procedures. They  can use this information to assess their students’ progress and to appraise how well the mathematical tasks, student discourse, and classroom environment are interacting to foster students’ learning. They then use these appraisals to adapt their instruction. Reflection and analysis are often individual activities, but they can be greatly enhanced by teaming with an experienced and respected colleague, a new teacher, or a community of teachers. Collaborating with colleagues regularly to observe, analyze, and discuss teaching and students’ thinking or to do â€Å"lesson study† is a powerful, yet neglected, form of professional development in American schools (Stigler and Hiebert 1999). The work and time of teachers must be structured to allow and support professional development that will benefit them and their students.