Saturday, December 28, 2019
President Truman has to make one of the hardest decisions of all time. He had to decide whether it was better to use a weapon of mass destruction, or let the war end on its own. Ultimately, his decisions to use the atomic bomb and end the war was the correct and most ethical decision. This decision was an ethical one because America gave the Japanese ample warning, it saved countless America lives, and it was payback for Pearl Harbor. First what made his decision ethical, Truman gave Japan ample warning time. As the Japanese knew they would be bombed in a few days, they immediately warned civilians to evacuate thirty-five cities. With that being said, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"About 1 million leaflets fell on the targeted cities whose names appearedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Truman couldn t release the lives of these individuals futile. I trust that the passing of these fighters settled on his choice to drop the bomb moral. Also, with all that being said, the losses from the U.S. key traditional besieging effort significantly obscured the quantity of people who passed on from the nuclear bombings. The March 1945 firebombing of Tokyo alone murdered exactly 120,000 Japanese. A ground intrusion would have brought about almost endless more setbacks. As one researcher who examined the U.S. attack arrange, Operation Downfall, notes: contingent upon how much Japanese regular people opposed the intrusion, gauges kept runnin g into the millions for Allied setbacks and several millions for Japanese losses(Keck, 2014, p. 1). That being stated, a solid case can be made that Operation Downfall, in any event as it was arranged, wouldn t have been important regardless of the possibility that the U.S. hadn t turned to atomic weapons. Specifically, the Soviet Union s choice to enter the Pacific War against Japan would have absolutely rushed Japan s surrender, and in this way spared lives. The nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gave Japanese pioneers the reason they expected to make the completely unbelievable move of surrendering. To be sure, the nuclear bombings figured unmistakably in Emperor Hirohito s remarkable discourse to the country declaring Japan s surrender. The adversary has startedShow MoreRelatedTruman s Greatest Moral Dilemma1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRachel Green HIST-1302 Spring 2015 TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s Greatest Moral Dilemma President Harry S. Truman had a major ethical and moral dilemma in choosing whether or not to use the atomic bomb as a resolution to the war. This came with many advantages and disadvantages. We must consider several facts. President Truman was almost thrown upon the presidential role upon RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s death. He was a reliable party man who was well liked by professional politicians. His inexperience and desire to please the AmericanRead MoreFdr Was An Unethical Leader1805 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdiscussed. Afterwards, the allegation that FDR was an unethical leader will be substantiated. Specifically, the attack on Pearl Harbor, the use of faulty logic, his ethical dilemma, and the internment of Japanese Americans will be scrutinized in order to reinforce the accusation. Finally, my personal relevance regarding my negative behavior and failure to overcome my ethical dilemma will also be examined. Visionary Leader FDR was a visionary leader because he was an inspirational motivator who putRead MoreJap A Nation Of Ancient Traditions And Little Contact With The Western World1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinvolved the Pacific and European theaters of war. Leading up to the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese, the Unites States were generally uninvolved in the war excluding minor complications between German and American warships and the attack on the U.S. Navy gunboat Panay by Japanese bi-planes. On the morning of December 7, 1941 the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the United States naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The surprise attack, intended as a preventative action to keep the UnitesRead MoreEssay Best War Ever Book Review1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSoldiers werenÃ¢â¬â¢t blown apart into pieces, they died honorably and nobly. Many factors had to be in place for such a distorted myth to come about. The central one being that the entire war was fought on foreign land with the excep tion of the bombing of Pearl Harbor. With the conflicts on the other sides of the oceans, Americans would not witness the brutality, destruction, and suffering of civilians and soldiers alike. The civilians of the United States, therefore, relied on other sourcesRead MoreDoolittle Raid On Pearl Harbor1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfor their attack on Pearl Harbor set the wheels in motion for The Doolittle Raid in 1942. The Doolittle Raid is one of the most important accomplishments of World War II, where Lt. Col. James Ã¢â¬Å"JimmyÃ¢â¬ Doolittle, a tremendous visionary leader, used the Full Range Leadership trait of Idealized Influence and the Team Dynamics traits of an Executor to successfully lead sixteen B-25 bombers to take off from an aircraft carrier to bomb Tokyo. Unfortunately, Doolittle was not an ethical leader in accomplishingRead MoreThe Outline Of The Second World War932 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfrom scientists, and particularly from his advisers Bush and Conant, that Nazi Germany was well on t he way to developing an atomic weapon, Stimson was alerted to the possibilities of the weapon on 6 November 1941, before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December propelled the United States into the Second World War. - For the Americans, who had consistently undervalued the extent and the variety of destruction of these weapons, the ruin, in a matter of minutes, of large, populous cities presentedRead MoreThe War Of The World War II1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinvestigate alternative plans that would benefit the cause without putting the U.S. directly in the war. Though the war began with Nazi Germany s attack on Poland in September 1939, the U.S. stayed neutral until a surprise attack from Japan on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 killing over 2,000 sailors and wounding 1,000 more. And though the Japanese thought the U.S. wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to build ships fast enough to continue to help Allies after the destruction, therefore allowing Germany to takeoverRead MoreThe United States Of America Elected A New President Essay1588 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthat can be created through compulsory obedience. This is not just vital to the work of the military but also creates important group dynamics that con tribute to its overall success. However, especially for an active soldier, obedience is an ethical dilemma. If they exert extreme obedience, they will at some point have to obey an authority that lacks important leadership characteristics like charisma or professional skills. Therefore, Lieutenant Colonel Wenker suggests that the soldier should makeRead MoreNuclear Weapons Are The Most Inhumane Weapons Invented1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNuclear weapons cause the decimation of cities and prolonged death. In Ã¢â¬Å"HiroshimaÃ¢â¬ Berger, speaks of the destruction of Hiroshima a city in Japan on August 6th, 1945. In Hiroshima, an A-Bomb was dropped on this city by the Americans in retaliation to Pearl Harbor. The A-Bomb caused prolonged death as stated: Ã¢â¬Å"The latter included long, lingering deaths, radiation sickness, many fatal illnesses which developed later as a result of exposure to the bomb, and tragic genetical effects on generations yet to beRead More The Database Dilemma Essay3843 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesThe Database Dilemma Personal privacy today is a controversial and complex topic, which is influenced by a number of factors. There is an integral role that databases play in this highly debated topic. The fact that many people now carry out their transactions electronically is another important factor. There is also pressure on personal privacy for increased national security around the world to combat terrorism. In addition, personal privacy is even threatened by commercial factors and the
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Consumption is a total idealistic practice that has little in common with the actual satisfaction of needs or the principle of reality as there is no moderate consumption at all. A consumer society is a set of relationships where the symbolism of material objects acting as the meaning of life dominates attracting consumers to acquire things and thereby grant themselves a certain status. The case study Ã¢â¬ËPatagoniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Sustainability Strategy: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Buy Our ProductsÃ¢â¬â¢ prepared by Zahir Dossa discusses consumerism and the way Patagonia has decided to challenge this phenomenon. The case study emphasizes on negative waste impacts of consumerism on the environment providing justification why people should purchase only necessary things and protectÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Both ideas have become popular among the consumers, which also supports the fact that Chouinard should continue challenging consumerism and encourage other businesses to do the same. The study of how Patagonia has managed to reduce the negative impacts of consumerism on the environment allows realizing that the organization should follow this path to continue fighting the negative consequences. In particular, Patagonia should study the way how materials are produced and processes that are involved in manufacturing regarding the negative impact on the environment. In the event of positive results, the company can post its findings in Footprint Chronicles on its website to make the information accessible for everyone and raise concerns regarding the issue. This tactic was already used by the management in 1996 during the transition from the conventional to organic cotton and the introduction of the Footprint Chronicles to standardize the approach (Dossa 3). Another effective companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is the allocation of 1% of sales or 10% of profits (whichever is greater) to environmental initiatives (Dossa 2). The funds have been used for charitable initiatives. At the same time, Patagonia has managed to adopt this practice so that other companies started following its example. The Ã¢â¬Ë1% for the PlanetÃ¢â¬â¢
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discus about the Detecting Asset Misappropriation. Answer: Article Summary On the basis of selected research article, it is summarized that, in the current time, business firms are facing a serious of financialaccounting issues and challenges that directly and indirectly reducing the firms profit, sales, revenue and decreasing reputation in the global business environment. In this research article, the author had explained that, today, corporate fraud is one of the major issue facing companies or firms. Moreover, fraud is also considered a major concern for all the regulators, inventors and external auditors. In addition to this, it is also suggested by the author that, misappropriation of assets within corporate environment is one of the major and common types of occupational fraud. It is also a most common ethical issue in the financial accounting. It is the all about the misuse of a companys assets. If the assets are used for any purpose than company interest, it would be called assets misappropriation (Kassem, 2014). At the same time, in this study, the author had summarized various types of fraud that negatively affect the success of a company. For case, it is explained by the author that, fraud may be internal and external fraud. Internal fraud is basically done and committed by the organizational people within the company. In contrast, the external fraud is the committed by the employees of a company outside the firms and such fraud includes investment fraud, customer fraud, vendors fraud, investors fraud. Hence, internal fraud is also called occupational fraud or corporate fraud. At the same time, the author had explained that, if anyone does misuse organizational assets or resource, it would be called misuse of assets or fraud (Johnson, and Rudesill, 2001). At the same time, the author had classified the types and main categories of fraud such as: financial reporting fraud, asset misappropriation, corruption etc. Additionally, it is suggested by the author that, the internal frauds comes before the external fraud and this is one of the most common and frequent types of fraud. Moreover, it is also suggested that, in order to deal with such fraud, the auditors of the company should examine the factors that are responsible for the fraud. In this study, the author had also discussed and explained the major duties, responsibilities and role of an auditor in dealing with such fraud issues. Apart from this, in order to understand the impact, types and concepts of internal and external fraud, the author had analyzed and discussed the case of Egypt in his study. In the same way, in this study, the researcher had explained and analyzed various categories of the misappropriation of assets and provided suggestion about how to control such issues (Hogan, Rezaee, Riley, and Velury, 2008). For case, it is explained by the researcher in the study that, misappropriation is an illegal and unethical act of stea ling an asset of a company for personal use at the companys expense or misuse of a companys resources. Additionally, several causes of asset misappropriation are discussed and summarized in this article by the author. Finally, the author had critically proposed framework of detecting asset misappropriation (Kassem, and Higson, 2012). Analysis/Critique Strengths of Published Article: The major strength of the research article is that, it provides a clear description about the various types of financialaccounting issues. This study is providing information about the types of fraud, categories of asset misappropriation. This research article is also directly related with the financialaccounting issues such as: misappropriation of assets (Srivastava, Mock, and Turner, 2009). This research article examines various areas of asset misappropriation that had never been examined and this could be used for the further research (Wells, 2004). This study is also more valuable and significant for the readers in understanding the nature of frauds and their classification. This research/publish articles suggests a specific framework that could be used by the external auditor in order to deal with the financial accounting issues. The author used literature, questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview to conduct the study that is important in addressing the research question and solve the research problem (Dahawy, Shehata, and Ransopher, 2010). Weaknesses of the Published Article: The main weaknesses of the published article are listed as below: In this study, the author had mainly focused on secondary method of data collection by ignoring the primary method of data collection Lack of graphical representation of information is also a major weakness of the study The study indicates that there are no clear research questions, research objectives and research gaps in the study that affected the outcomes of the study (Wells, 2004). In the research, the researcher had used more complicated sampling techniques to collect the sample No statistical and mathematical models of financial accounting are used to present the study by the author that is main limitation of the study conducted by the author (Pedneault, 2004). Implications to the Accounting Profession: The research done by the author has several implications for the Accounting profession. For case, the study could be used by the accountants, auditors and financial managers in order to understand and analyze the nature, types, classification, concepts related to red flags, fraud detection techniques, occupational fraud, audit procedures, audit expectation gap, audit quality, audit risk etc (Shelton, Whittington, and Landsittel, 2001). In addition, this, the accounting professional could also understand the impact of fraud not only on the firms performance but also on the individual performance. Moreover, the auditors could also understand their roles and functions in avoiding of different kinds of frauds. For instance, this research study is provide a clear direction to the people related to the accounting profession that what are the major causes that are responsible for the fraud in the organizations (Srivastava, Mock, and Turner, 2009). Furthermore, this study is also provides opportunity to the accountants or auditors about how to follow specific process to avoid fraud. On the other hand, the accounting people would also be able to understand and analyze the current financial accounting issues that faced by the business firms and their negative impact on the firms reputation as well as productivity. In the same way, the accounting people would be able to understand the financial accounting concepts, issues, problems. Along with this, this study can also help the internal and external auditors in understanding their roles and functions in maintaining the audit quality by using several audit process, methods and techniques (Pedneault, 2004). Relevance to the Unit Financial Accounting Theory: The research study conducted by the researcher is directly related to the course unit of financial accounting theory. During the study of course, it is studied that, there are various types of fraud exits within a company that create serious issues in the front of the companies. Moreover, it is also studied during the course work that, various specific and dynamic fraud detection techniques could be used by the auditor or company to deduct the fraud (Wells, 2005). In addition to this, it is also important to know that, the nature and categories of asset misappropriation aspect of the research article is directly related with the core unit financial accounting theory. For instance, at the time of classroom session, it is studied that frauds may be different in the nature and impact (Wells, 2004). Additionally, all the types of frauds have negative impact on the organizational financial situation and create a lot of challenges in the front of companies. Data analysis and research results part of the research article is also relevant with the unit. For case, it is acknowledged that, there are several methods and techniques could be adopted by a company in order to deal with the fraud issues (Johnson, and Rudesill, 2001). Finally, the Red flag for skimming schemes addressed in the article is also related with the course unit. During the classroom studies, different types of skimming schemes are learned. Recommendation On the basis of above discussion, it can be recommended that, the auditors/researcher should use primary method properly and effectively to collect the fresh, real and accurate information in order to fulfill the aims and objectives of the study. Additionally, it can also be said that, the researcher should conduct the study through the mixed research method (primary and secondary). Moreover, the researcher should also design research questions, research problems and research objectives separately in order to reach valid outcomes (Srivastava, Mock, and Turner, 2009). On the other hand, the researcher should also identify the gaps in the research. Finally, the researcher must also adopt statistical and mathematical models to test the study. Overall, the researcher should adopt the suggested methodologies in order to avoid above identified weaknesses. Conclusion On the basis of above discussion, it can be concluded that, this research study provides detailed summary of the article that improve understanding about the issues of financial accounting and their impact on firms performance. At the same time, it is also concluded that, there are several strengths and weaknesses of the research article that would provide description about the major objective of the study. Moreover, the implication of the article with regards to the Accounting Profession is also analyzed to fulfill the aims of the study. Finally, it can be concluded that, the selected research article is related to the unit such as: Financial Accounting Theory. Finally, this research study provides recommendations to overcome the issues related to financial accounting. References Dahawy, K., Shehata, N.F. and Ransopher, T. (2010). The state of accounting in Egypt: a case, Journal of Business Cases and Applications, 1(3), pp.112. Hogan, C.E., Rezaee, Z., Riley, R. and Velury, U.K. (2008). Financial statement fraud: insights from the academic literature, Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory, 27( 2), pp.231252. Johnson, G.G. and Rudesill, C.L. (2001). An investigation into fraud prevention and detection of small businesses in the United States: responsibilities of auditors, managers, and business owners, Accounting Forum, 25(1), pp. 14-75. Kassem, R. (2014). Detecting asset misappropriation: a framework for external auditors. International Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Performance Evaluation (IJAAPE), 10(1), pp. 1-42. Kassem, R. and Higson, A.W. (2012). Financial reporting fraud: are external auditors and standards setters doing enough?, International Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3(19), pp.283290. Pedneault, S.A. (2004). Yes, auditors can stop fraud, if they know what to look for, White Collar Crime Fighter, 6(8), pp.13. Shelton, S.W., Whittington, O.R. and Landsittel, D. (2001). Auditing firms fraud risk assessment practices. Accounting Horizons, 15(1), pp.1933. Srivastava, R.P., Mock, T.J. and Turner, J.L. (2009). Bayesian fraud risk formula for financial statement audits, Abacus. A Journal of Accounting, Finance, and Business Studies, 45(1), pp. 6680. Wells, J.T. (2005). Principles of Fraud Examination. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Wells, J.T. (2004). Occupational Fraud and Abuse. Australia: Obsidian Publishing.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Triangular Theory of Love Essay Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID, USA Stembergs Triangular Theory of Love was examined to identify the structure of the psyche implied in that theory, Stembergs theory posits three components of human functioning to explain the phenomenon of love in close relationships: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Analysis of these three components indicates that they align with a neoclassical model of the human psyche, A neoclassical psyche consists of at least three fundamental, irreducible capacities: cognition, affect, and conation, Stembergs commitment component relies on the capacity for cognition (and conation), the passion component is derived from conation (and affect), and the intimacy component is derived from emotional investment or the capacity for affect (and cognition). Therefore, Stembergs overall Triangular Theory of Love ontologically presupposes a neoclassical structure to the psyche. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure of the human psyche that is implied in Stembergs Triangular Theory of Love, with its three nodes of intimacy, passion, and commitment. Therefore the authors of this paper aimed to answer the question, What must be the structure of the psyche in order for love to consist of intimacy, passion and commitment? The central hypothesis in this paper is that the structure of the psyche, implied in Stembergs work, is a neoclassical psyche, a psyche that consists of at least these three fundamental, irreducible, capacities: a) cognition, b) affect, and c) conation (Hilgard, 1980; LeDoux, 2002; Tallon, 1997). Rhett Diessner, Professor of Psychology and Education, Nellie Frost and Titus Smith, Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID, USA, Appreciation is due to eviewers including: Robert Lemieux, PhD, McDaniel College, Com munication Department, 2 College Hill, Westminster, MD, USA 21157, Email: ; Ge Gao, PhD, Department of Communication Studies, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192, USA, Email: Keywords: Stemberg, psyche, love, cognition, conation. Please address correspondence and reprint requests to: Rhett Diessner, Professor of Psychology and Education, 500 8th Ave,, Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID 83501-2698, USA. Phone: 208 792 2338; Fax: 208 792 2820; Email: 683 684 PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE We will write a custom essay sample on Triangular Theory of Love specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Triangular Theory of Love specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Triangular Theory of Love specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A SUMMARY OF STERNBERGS TRIANGULAR THEORY OF LOVE The triangular theory of love is so called because it holds that love can be understood in terms of three components that together can be viewed as forming the vertices of a triangle: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment (Stemberg, 1986). Stemberg grounds this theory historically and rationally (1988, 1998; Beall Stemberg, 1995) as well as psychometrically and empirically (Acker Davis, 1992; Chojnacki Walsh, 1990; Lemieux Hale, 1999; Stemberg, 1997; Stemberg Grajek, 1984; Whitley, 1993). According to Stemberg (1986, 1988, 1997) the intimacy component refers to a sense of bonding and close, connected feelings in loving relationships. Thus this component focuses on the emotions that comprise the experience of warmth in a loving relationship. Stemberg and Grajeks (1984) cluster analysis of various love scales indicated that intimacy included such factors as desire to promote the beloveds welfare, sharing with the beloved, mutual understanding, high regard and intimate communication. In general, the intimacy component might be viewed as largely, but not exclusively, deriving from emotional investment in the relationship (Stemberg, 1986, p. 119). The triangular theorys passion component refers to the drives that lead to romance, physical attraction, sexual consummation, and the like in a loving relationship (Stemberg, 1988, p. 118). Stemberg focuses on sexual desire as central to this component, but he also acknowledges that a variety of needs, ranging from self-actualiza tion to self-esteem to dominance/submission are likely to influence passion. In particular, Stemberg considers that the passion component is largely but not exclusively derived from motivational involvement in the relationship (1986, p. 19). The decision/commitment component is structured temporally and consists of two facets, one in the present and one in the future (Stemberg, 1986,1988,1997). In present time (the short term) the issue is the decision to love someone or not. In regard to future time (the long term) the issue is to maintain commitment to the beloved. Stemberg (1986), at least in his early work on this theory, considered that the decision/commitment component was cognitive in nature, stating that this component thus includes within its purview the cognitive elements that are involved (p. 19) in making a decision to be in, and to stay in, a loving relationship. Based on these three components of love, eight possible types of love come into focus, creating a classifi cation system for the various kinds of love relationships (Stemberg, 1986,1988). A liking type of love is intimacy without passion or commitment; infatuation is passion without intimacy or commitment; empty love is commitment without passion or intimacy; romantic love is a combination of intimacy and passion sans commitment; companionate love results from intimacy combined with commitment but PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE 685 ithout passion; fatuous (stupid) love is the combination of passion and commitment but lacking intimacy; consummate love comes from all three components being active in the relationship; and nonlove is when all three components are absent. A NEOCLASSICAL PSYCHE The psyche that underlies Sternbergs model is aptly referred to as a neoclassical psyche, as it is reminiscent of the psyche as described by Socrates in Platos The Republic (380BCE/1937), Book IV. Socrates explained that the psyche consists of three parts: the logical-rational (logiston), the spiri ted or affective (thymia), and the desiring (epithymia). This description of the psyche is also neoclassical in relation to the psychology of the medieval period, among both Christian and Islamic scholars. Thomas Aquinas, the Scholastics (Tallon, 1997), ibn Sinl (Avicenna), and ibn Arabi (Leahey, 2000), all wrote extensively on the capacities of the psyche or mind to know (cognition), to love (and other emotions) and to will (conation). Those medieval Christian and Islamic scholars, however, did not specifically consider the structure of the psyche to be based on the three capacities of cognition, affect and conation; yet, Immanuel Kant often considered the greatest modem philosopher did. He wrote in his Critique of Judgment, There are three absolutely irreducible faculties of the mind, namely, knowledge, feeling, and desire (cited in Hilgard, 1980, p. 109). And despite behaviorisms reign throughout much of the 20th century in which the concept of the psyche, and particularly the will were banished and despite the current emphasis in the discipline of psychology upon cognition, many psychologists have continued to frame the structure of the psyche in terms of these three capacities. Particularly in social psychological research, regarding the concept of attitude, psychologists posit this triadic psyche (Fishbein Ajzen, 1975; Kothandapani, 1971; Ostrom, 1969), as well as in general reviews of the history of psychology and studies of the mind (Hilgard, 1980; Insko Schopler, 1967; Plooij, 2003), or in educational psychology (Diessner, 2001; Snow, Como Jackson, 1996). Likewise, in the study of religion/spirituality and psychology this triadic psyche surfaces, ranging from studies by Christian psychologists (Kristensen, Pedersen, Williams, 2001; Pedersen, WiUiams, Kristensen, 2000; Tallon, 1997) to that of Bahdi psychologists (Danesh, 1997; MustakovaPossardt, 2003). Even in the explicitly hard science of biological psychology, the neoclassical psyche is posited. LeDoux (2002), in his Synaptic self, states that Traditionally . . . the mind has been viewed as a trilogy, consisting of cognition, affect (emotion), and conation (motivation) (p. 4; NB, LeDoux is emphasizing the willful and volitional aspect of motivation). Thus, a neoclassical psyche has its roots in the works of Plato; the elements of it are discussed throughout the writings of medieval Christian and Islamic psy- 686 PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE chologically oriented philosophers; it is affirmed by Immanuel Kants enlightenment philosophy; and continues to be a force in contempo rary psychology. THE NEOCLASSICAL PSYCHE IMPLICIT IN STERNBERGS MODEL As mentioned above, a neoclassical psyche is an integration of the three quasidiscrete fundamental psychological capacities of cognition (knowing), affect (emoting) and conation (volition, will). In the next three subsections we briefly explicate the hypotheses that Stembergs description of intimacy is primarily undergirded by the capacity to emote; that his defmition of passion is primarily a motivational experience and thus based on the conative ability; and that decision/commitment, in Stembergs model, is at least partially derived from the capacity for cognition. Of course, the three fundamental human capacities of cognition, affect and conation are only quasi-discrete. That is, they are qualitatively different capacities, but nonetheless in human phenomenology they are always in interaction with each other, and it seems unlikely that any human experience is one of pure cognition with no affect, or that we have a pure conative experience with no immediate influence from affect or cognition (Danesh, 1997; LeDoux, 2002; Mustakova-Possardt, 2003; Tallon, 1997). For example, Bandura (1986) captures this discrete-but-interactive notion with his concept of reciprocal determinism. And just as Socrates model of the psyche implies logiston, thymia and epithymia as inherently interactive (Plato, 1937), and Freuds model of the psyche is explicit about ego, id, and superego being dynamically interactive, Stemberg also emphasizes that the important thing to remember is that the triangles are not independent but interactive (1988, p. 136; cf. Acker Davis , 1992; Lemieux Hale, 2000). Intimacy and Affect Stembergs defmition of intimacy emphasizes feelings, the . . . close, connected, and bonded feelings in loving relationships (1986, p. 120). Clearly, this component of love relies on the psyches capacity for affect. In terms of interaction, intimacy also is dependent on the interaction of the psyches capacities for cognition and affect, in at least two ways. Firstly, the emotional sharing and mutual understanding that characterizes intimacy requires cognition of the beloveds emotions, and understanding of the other is also dependent on cognition of the beloveds thoughts and behaviors. That is, the understanding of the other that intimacy requires, is dependent on interpersonal cognition, or what Gardner (1999) would call interpersonal intelligence. Secondly, cognition is intimately bound to affect in the sense that cognitions tend to precede emotions, and some psychologists of emotion actually consider cognition as partially constitutive of emotion itself (Amold, 1960; Lazarus, 1991). PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE 687 Passion and Conation To the degree that human conation, or the human will, is defined as desire (cf . Platos epithymia, 1937) and as motivation (Lazarus, 1991; LeDoux, 2002; Snow Jackson, 1994) then Stembergs passion component is an expression of the psyches fundamental capacity for conation. Stemberg has emphasized that the passion component is derived largely, but not exclusively, from motivational processes (1986, p. 119; and see also 1997), and psychologists tend either to identify conation with motivation, or at least to consider motivation as one aspect of conation (Lazarus; LeDoux; Snow Jackson). Of course passion is passionately integrated with affect and cognition. The everyday woman or man-on-the-street associates passion with affect, with very strong feelings. We tend to think of a passion as happening to us and being reflected in our affective state (see Averill, 1980). And there appears to be no passion without an object of passion; and cognition is necessary for us to behold that object of passion in our consciousness. Decision/Commitment and Cognition (and Conation) In Stembergs early work (1986) on his triangular love theory he associated cognition with decision/commitment in love: The decision/commitment component is derived largely, although not exclusively, from cognitive decision in and commitment to the relationship (p. 119). In his later work (e. g. 1997) on the theory, he does not explicitly mention cognition in regard to this component, nor affect nor conation. Granted, cognitions are likely to precede decisions and commitment, and are intimately and inextricably bound to them, just as many cognitive psychologists consider that cognitions either precede emotional experience, or are partially constitutive of emotional experience. However, decisions and commitments seem more likely to be derived from the psyches capacity for conation. That is, decisions and commitments are choices, they are acts of the will, they are volitional. This position is strongly supported by humanistic psychology (Maslow, 1954; Rogers, 1961), that is, self-actualization primarily occurs through acts of the will, through decisions and commitments that are acts of conation. This view that our choices, decisions and commitments are acts of the will is also emphasized in the emerging positive psychology (Seligman, 2002, see pp. 135-6). Therefore, it seems that the decision/commitment component of Stembergs theory is primarily an expression of the psyches capacity for conation, although integrated with and influenced by human cognition. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION We conclude that the central hypothesis in this paper, that the structure of the psyche implied in Stembergs work is a neoclassical psyche, has been plausibly 688 PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE supported in the above analysis. We have demonstrated that the three components of the triangular theory of love are indeed substantially constituted by the capacities of cognition, affect, and conation; and we reviewed the work of psychologists and philosophers who advocate that the human mind or psyche is constituted by those three capacities. Seeking Disconfirmation What would disconfirm the findings of this analysis? Our hypothesis would be partially disconfiimed if it were shown that intimacy or passion or decision/commitment, as described by Stemberg, were expressions of the human psyche that cannot be accounted for by cognition, affect and/or conation. This is an open question, and we invite criticism in this regard. The methodology of our analysis would be called into question if we misinterpreted the views of Socrates, Hilgard (1980), LeDoux (2002), and others that the psyche is constituted by the three fundamental capacities of cognition, affect, and conation. The meaningfulness of our hypothesis, in regard to the notion of a neoclassical psyche would be in question if there were other capacities of the human psyche that are fundamental to cognition or affect or conation, or if there were other fundamental capacities that are parallel to cognition, affect and conation. We invite discussion in this regard. Of course, postmodernists and deconstructionists would shudder at our use of the phrase structure of the psyche, and point out this is a Western-centric and arbitrary view of the capacities of the human being. Postmodernists have been delightfully helpful in reminding writers of their various privileged positions, of combating racism and sexism, and of keeping our minds open. But we might be tempted to point out that when they shudder, they are experiencing affect; and that the shuddering was caused by their cognition of our use of the concepts of structure and psyche; and that their decision to criticize was an act of conation. REFERENCES Acker, M. , Davis, M. H. (1992). Intimacy, passion and commitment in adult romantic relationships: A test of the triangular theory of love. Journal of Social Personal Relationships, 9(1), 21-50. Arnold, M. (1960). Emotion and personality: Vol. I. Psychological aspects. NY: Columbia University Press. Averill, J. R. (1980). A constructivist view of emotion. In R. Plutchik H. Kellerman (Eds. ), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience. Vol. 1 (pp. 305-339). New York: Academic Press. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. EnglewoodCliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Beall, A. E. , Stemberg, R. J. (1995). The social construction of love. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12, 417-438. Chojnacki, J. T. , Walsh, W. B. (1990). Reliability and concurrent validity of the Stemberg triangular love scale. Psychological Reports, 67(1), 219-224. Danesh, H. (1997). The psychology of spirituality. From divided to integrated self. Wienacht, Switzerland and Hong Kong: Landegg Academy Press and Juxta Publishing. PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE 689 Diessner, R. (2001), Foundations of educational psychology: Howard Gardners neo-classical psyche. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 162,495-501. Fishbein, M. , Ajzen, I, (1975), Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Gardner, H, (1999), Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books. Hilgard, E, (1980), The trilogy of mind: Cognition, affection, and conation. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16, 107-117. Insko, C, A. , Schopler, J. (1967). Triadic consistency: A statement of affective-cognitive-conative consistency. Psychological Review, 74, 361-76. Kothandapani, V. (1971). Validation of feeling, belief, and intention to act as three components of attitude and their contribution to prediction of contraceptive behavior. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 19, 321-333. Kristensen, K, B,, Pedersen, D, M,, Williams, R, N, (2001), Profiling religious maturity: The relationship of religious attitude components to religious orientations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40, 75-87, Lazarus, R, S, (1991), Progress on the cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, American Psychologist, 46, 819-834, Leahey, T, H, (2000), A history of psychology (5th ed,). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. LeDoux, J. (2002), Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. NY: Penguin Books. Lemieux, R. , Hale, J, L, (1999), Intimacy, passion and commitment in young romantic relationships: Successfully measuring the triangular theory of love. Psychological Reports, 85(2), 497-503, Lemieux, R,, Hale, J, L, (2000), Intimacy, passion and commitment among married individuals: Further testing of the triangular theory of love. Psychological Reports, 87, 941-948, Maslow, A, (1954/1987), Motivation and personality (3rd ed,). NY: Harper Row. Mustakova-Possardt, E, (2003), Critical consciousness: A study of morality in global, historical context. Westport, CT: Greenwood/Praeger, Ostrom, T, M, (1969), The relationship between the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of attitude. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, S, 12-30. Pedersen, D. M,, Williams, R, N,, Kristensen, K, B, (2000), The relation of spiritual self-identity to rehgious orientations and attitudes. Journal of Psychology Theology, 28, 138-148, Plato (1937/380 BCE), The dialogues of Plato (B, Jowett, Trans,), NY: Random House, Plooij, F, X, (2003), The trilogy of mind. In M, Heimann (Ed,), Regression periods in human infancy (pp, 185-205). Malwah, NJ: Erlbaum, Rogers, C, R, (1961), On becoming a person. New York: Harper Row. Seligman, M, (2002), Authentic happiness. New York: Free Press, Snow, R, E. , Jackson, D, N,, HI. (1994). Individual differences in conation: Selected constructs and measures. In H. F. ONeill, Jr. , M, Drillings (Eds,), Motivation: Theory and research (pp, 7199), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, Snow, R, E,, Como, L. , Jackson D. N. , HI, (1996). Individual differences in affective and conative functions. In D, C, Berliner R, C, Calfee (Eds,), Handbook of educational psychology (pp, 243310), New York: Macmillan, Stemberg, R, J, (1986). A triangular theory of love. Psychological Review, 93, 119-135. Stemberg, R. J, (1988), Triangulating love. In R, J, Stemberg M, L, Bames (Eds. ), The psychology of love (pp. 119-138). London: Yale University Press. Stemberg, R. J. (1997). Construct validation of a triangular love scale. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27(3), 313-335, 690 PSYCHE IN STERNBERGS THEORY OF LOVE Stemberg, R. J. (1998). Cupids arrow: The course of love through time. New York: Cambridge University Press. Stemberg, R. J. , Grajek, S. (1984). The nature of love. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 47(2), 312-329. Tallon, A. (1997). Head and heart: Affection, cognition, volition
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Alphonse Capone Essays - Five Points Gang, The Untouchables Alphonse Capone Alphonse Capone Born 1/17/1899, Brooklyn Died 1/25/1947, Florida Al Capone is one of the most recognized names in American history. Alphonse was born to Neapolitan immigrants Gabriel and Teresa. His surname, originally Caponi, had been Americanized to Capone. The Capone family included James, Ralph, Salvatore (Frank), Alphonse, John, Albert, Matthew, Rose and Mafalda. Capone was proud to be an American I'm no Italian. I was born in Brooklyn, he often said. Al went to school with Salvatore Lucania, later known as Lucky Luciano. At about the age of ten he began to follow up-and-coming gangster Johnny Torrio, also a Neapolitan. At fourteen he quit school after striking a teacher. Capone and Lucky Luciano joined a gang known as the Five Pointers, on Manhattan's Lower East Side. Capone worked for Frank Yale, president of the Unione Siciliane, as a bouncer and bartender. One night he made a remark about the sister of Frank Galluciano, and Galluciano slashed Capone's face with a pocket knife, leaving three large scars on the left side of his face. For much of his criminal career, newspapers would call Capone by the hated name Scarface. Incredibly, Capone choose to forgive Galluciano and, years later, hired him as a bodyguard. Johnny Torrio had moved to Chicago to work for his uncle, Big Jim Colosimo. Torrio sent for his trusted lieutenant, Capone. Suspected of two murders, Capone was eager to leave New York. Capone worked under Torrio as a bouncer and thug. On May 11, 1920, Big Jim Colosimo was assassinated in his own cafe by an unknown killer. Johnny Torrio was now the leader of the most powerful gang in Chicago, and Capone his right-hand man. Torrio imposed a peace treaty on the other gangs, which lasted until the O'Banion-Genna war. Torrio was shot by O'Banion men in reprisal for O'Banion's slaying. He survived, barely. Before retiring to Italy, Torrio turned over leadership of his gang to Capone. Jen3 The Di Vito monument, a short distance east of the Bishops' mausoleum, features busts of Mr. and Mrs. Di Vito in shallow alcoves. The Ionic columns on the side are partially covered with clinging vines. Jen4 Mount Carmel is one of Chicago's finest graveyards. It is located in west suburban Hillside, across the street from Queen of Heaven. Mt Carmel is the oldest Catholic cemetery in the western part of the Archdiocese of Chicago. The vast majority of persons buried here are Italian. Italian traditions include statuary, and photographs on the monument, and private mausoleums. There are over 400 private family mausoleums in Mt. Carmel, more than any other cemetery in the area. Italian immigrants in Chicago preserved their culture, and Mount Carmel has a wonderful Old-World feel. The most popular attraction is the Bishops' mausoleum, which received over 50,000 visitors in the two months after the death of Cardinal Bernardin in October 1996. But to many, Mt. Carmel is equally famous for the graves of Chicago's notorious gangsters of the 1920s - including Al Capone, best known of them all. Bibliography I really cant say anything
Sunday, November 24, 2019
How Cahokia Was Mighty essays North of Mexico, the pre-Colombian settlement of Cahokia was the most influential and intricate Native American community in North America. A society of mound builders, which endured from about 9500 B.C. to 1400 A.D., they set up a massive trading center complete with their own types of governing bodies, architecture, religion, sophisticated farming, and local specialties. In one way or another, the Cahokian culture touched even the far reaches of the present day United States, from the Gulf Coast to the Great Lakes, from the Atlantic coast to Oklahoma, all from its central location in the Mississippi region. It is for these reasons that Cahokia was a superior power in the New World before the Europeans came, and even now, can be considered important and mighty. The first factor that indicates the might of the Cahokian culture is the great structures of earth that they created for public buildings, residences of the nobility, religious purposes, and as burial ground. These mounds, 120 in number, were built on an area exceeding five square miles, and usually were between six and twelve feet in height. The largest mound however, named Monks mound for the colony of Trappist monks who later tried colonize atop the construction, covers today 14 acres at the base and rises 100 feet in height. What is even mightier about this mound, which happens to be the largest pre-historic earthen structure in the New World, is that it took over 19 million hours of labor to complete, and that it was done all by hand. The 22 million cubic feet of dirt it took to form the mound, was deposited in stages from about 900 to 1200 A.D.. The greatness that is Monks mound was probably used for governing, ceremonies, and for the Cahokian leaders living spaces and burial plots. Another remarkable mound in Cahokia, simply called Mound 72, was designed by the Cahokians so that one end of it face...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Developing and Managing an Enterprise - Essay Example Majority of the operation of the company are operated by franchises in which separate franchisers buy the rights to operate their business under the name of McDonalds while providing the same quality and service in its products as is the product and service offering of the McDonalds Company. (Rensi, 1995) Standalone businesses as well as franchises can be launched by entrepreneurs who seek to establish unique and innovative business. The main difference between an entrepreneur and any other form of business man is that entrepreneurs are willing to take on risks. They do not take on excessive risk; instead they are "calculated risk takers, who define the risks inherent in any venture and attempt to minimize them" (Kathleen, 2006, p6) The advantages that are available to standalone businesses pertain to the fact that the proprietor can run the business, according to their own wishes and plan the product and service offering as per the plans of the proprietor (Lewis, 1994). They have almost complete control in the development of the business, its strategic expansion as well as the positioning of the company and the products in the market. "The advantage of buying an independent business over a franchi... "The advantage of buying an independent business over a franchise is that the business you buy is yours to do with what you will. You do not have to maintain any aspects of the business that do not increase profits, and you can implement new ideas as you see fit. In fact, some business buyers look for struggling businesses that are undervalued because they know they can improve their profitability. Once the transition has been made, as the new owner, you have the full decision-making power." ('Should You Purchase a Stand-Alone Business or a Franchise', 2008, p1) The disadvantage of a standalone business however pertain to the increased risk that the company has to bear and the limited resource for funding and support that are available to the business. "Of course, with greater flexibility and full control comes increased risk. After all, as an independent owner, the business is contingent on your decisions. For this reason it is not always easy to obtain the necessary financing without an established track record of running such a business." ('Should You Purchase a Stand-Alone Business or a Franchise', 2008, p2) Moreover the business is solely responsible for establishing new relationships with suppliers, clients as well as vendors, distribution agents, media contacts and developing the marketing campaign of the business. The advantages of operating a franchise include that the franchise business is formed with a basis of a proven idea supporting it. Moreover it is possible for business to assess the performance and the success of other franchises of the same company before committing one. (Peterson & Dant, 1990)Aside from this, in a franchise the business can use recognized brand names and trademarks. The franchisor also
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
(uni application) - Personal Statement Example The combinations of these elements in a design give it distinctiveness. Interior design seeks to reflect the esthetic value of things in the environment. Personally think there is more to interior design than acquiring the perfect art piece or choosing the most color palette. It requires skill and precision in understanding a clients design needs. The work of an interior designer should ultimately give any space purpose and tasteful value. Interior design is human-centered. It requires consultation with both the client and the architect to have a clear understanding of the intended space for designing. Additionally, there is more to interior design than making spaces attractive. The interior designer adds functional value and creates efficiency and safety to an area to improve the quality of the working and living milieu. Ensuring harmony with the principles of design amounts to the success of interior design. The principles of interior design are unity, balance, proportion, emphasis, similarity, contrast, and hierarchy. Balance ensures equilibrium in a design that may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Primarily, any design plan ought to have unity in all its elements. The interior designer must create a design by referring to the most vital parts first in a hierarchal process. Scale emphasizes on the size of the items in question. A focal point should always dominate the design with both contrast and magnitude. Fusing similarity and contrast give an allure of life and excitement to a design. In summary, the reason I like interior design, is that from my childhood days, I have always loved designs in rooms and the functional value that it adds to a chamber. I am passionate about designing rooms so that they become more appropriate for the purpose. I need to augment my skills and add more knowledge in the topic as I pursue a career in interior design. Interior design is intrinsic and has a lifetime upshot on the lives of everyone in
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Effects of franchised and international fashion stores on local clothing retailing and its relation to global marketing stratgie - Dissertation Example This situation analysis has been assessed and promulgated customised strategy under the Ã¢â¬Å"Global Marketing StrategiesÃ¢â¬ . We have collected data relating to the Saudi woman and their frequency of visiting particular band irrespective local or international, and also Saudi market itself to harness what are the marketing mix positioning and strategy practiced in domestic shape. We have observed and analyzed different global marketing strategies which can help us to identify the gap in current strategy of retail mix in Saudi Arabia under current Global market strategies. This paper has dissected all the elements to identify this point in final state by breaking them in questionnaire. This fact based analysis will help to understand the upcoming competitive era with specified factors identified to contribute in greater extent to promulgate strategies for retail industry in Saudi Arabia. Research Word: Retail Industry, Retail marketing mix, Saudi franchised international brand, G lobal marketing strategy. 1. Introduction Saudi Arabia is getting very competition intense economy where most of the international brands are interested to invest and derive good revenue from the strength of local purchasing power. Many international events in Saudi Kingdom are now approaching for the foreign investment and it is arranging many exhibitions. Main area where most industry is developing for foreign trade in Dahahran, Jedda and Riyadh. In these are apparel having a important space. Diagram: Significance/ Capacity of venue From this chart we can see what are the factorÃ¢â¬â¢s that the Saudi woman considers for the purchasing of any clothing in retail stores. From this analysis and form the global growth of 15% for the retail fashion industry. In this point the strategy which is highly depending on the marketing mix composed of people, place, product and promotion varies significantly and contributed widely in business profitability. Ongoing brand consciousness and the strong purchasing power we can see that the international incentives to invest in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Based on this potentiality of this industry more research, information and facilitation form the government has to plan for the local retail store so that they can compete and survive with global competition. Eventually the local store can keep the customer demand in more customized way, but the fact is the taste ans culture is getting more global than particular land. We have summarized some research to support our existing research that we can continue the quantitative research based on this base of qualitative or exploratory research made by Amani Aqeel in 2012. Saudi womenÃ¢â¬â¢s purchase intention from the total sample of 20 customers shows the figure above to prove the factors and their intensity. These summary reports can help us to pursue the further research in greater details of qualitative and quantitative extent. 2. Research aim-(Given/ Made by customer) 3. Re search Objective-(Given/Made by customer) 4. Literature Review- 2 pages Since 1853 , Levi Strauss used to believe as one of the most popular international fashion retailers all over the world. Upon continuing their operation after long years of time worldwide they have started their strategy to make standardization practice to meet the goal of meeting economies of scale and core
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Impact of Globalization on Poor Countries Globalization refers to integration of regional societies, cultures and economies through reduction of state enforced limitations on exchanges between different countries thereby enhancing a global network of trade and communication. While globalization is driven by interaction of different, economies, technology, political factors and social cultures, the term is in most cases used to refer to economic globalization where different countries economies become integrated into an international economy through a globe spanning network of trade, migration, foreign trade investments, technology and capital flows. Globalization also involves transnational exchange of ideas, languages and acculturation (Amin, 2004). Globalization history can be traced from the Hellenistic age and the rise of cosmopolitan when commercialized urban centers of Greek culture like Athens, Antioch and Alexandria enhanced a widespread of trade and commercial links. Globalization continued with the colonization of Americans by Europeans which initiated the Columbian exchange enhancing a wide spread of crops, trade and human populations and migration. Globalization however got its modern form in 19th century shaped by imperialism when industrialization brought about economies of scale which made cheap production which was sustained by increased population demand. Its argued that the forces of globalization enhanced the world war (Barkema Drogendijk, 2007). Globalization as used by different economists and social scientists can be traced back in 1960s and has inspired diverse and numerous definitions and understanding. Globalization and internationalization are interchangeably used; the only distinction in the usage of the two terms is that internationalization is more focused on international relations, trade and treaties which are driven by labor and capital mobility. Globalization as used in economic context refers to reduction and elimination of barriers between different countries economies in away that flow of goods and services capital and labor is facilitated. Some of the things that slowdown globalization include countries political and capital policies which are inward looking and focused to protection of countries industries (Wood,1998).To enhance globalization microeconomics processes need to be focused on economic policies, political subjectivity, capital and other different dynamics and domains so as to denationalize what has been made national. Globalization is seen as a way of flattening the world into global system of trade, supply chain and outsourcing and this has greatly and permanently changed countries economies, political forces both in a good and a bad way. The rate of globalization is increasing and continues to have a rising impact on business practice and commercial organization, giving a neoliberal kind of international economic systems (Beall, 2004). Rapid expansion of transnational corporations in U.S and Europe has given rise to systematic trend of economies growth and die dynamics which are the main drives of the quickening globalization which has stand the counter tendency changes and forces that emanate from trade union actions and political activities. Globalization has become an irreversible phenomenon whose long history in market economic systems has given rise to transnational elites and political globalization which has phased out the traditional form of powerful-nation states, globalization has given rise to cultural and ideological homogenization worldwide coupled with significant inventions. Globalization has largely been driven by political planning which has seen a breakdown of trade borders and increasing interdependence of states through international commerce and trade and the establishment of international institutions to manage the globalization process. These institutions include the World Bank (formerly know n as bank for International Reconstruction and Development), World Trade Organization and International Monetary Fund. Advanced Technology has greatly reduced the trade and negotiation cost through agreed trade tariffs which have seen the possibility of free trade among different countries (Ostry, 1998). Some of the actions involved in the General Agreement on Trade Tariffs include elimination of trade tariffs creating free trade zones, lowering the transportation costs and enhancing containerization which has made Ocean hipping in different countries possible, introduction of harmonized trade subsidies globally which has attracted different corporations in the international market. Increased restrictions in the harmonized intellectual property laws have also seen a great breakthrough for free trade such that intellectual properties and patents are recognized across states. Trade treaties enhanced by the WTO like the Uruguay Round which has introduced a uniform trading platform, oth er multilateral and bilateral agreements on trade like North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have greatly reduced the trade tariffs and barriers and enhanced free trade and given aÃ Ã rise in world exports and the total gross world product (Lazear, 1999). Advanced communication technology; mobile pone and other computer software technology spread among countries which have made communication cheap and possible among countries, and worldwide marketing has greatly driven cultural globalization with western American culture dominating most regions in expense of the traditional diversity. The contrasting trend led by movements in protest to globalization has not given any fruits in its defense for local individuality uniqueness and identity (Yeung, 2002). According to Rothstein (2005), various economic characteristics of globalization like capital, labor, technology and exports and imports, we can easily measure globalization if we take it as economic globalization. Exports and imports can be determined as a proportion gross national income while labor can be determined as net migration rates flow; weighted by population inward and outward flow. Inward and outward capital flow can be determined through investment as a proportion of per capital income while technology can be measured in terms of worldwide research as well as development flows and the rates of change noted through inventions that has given new products in telephone, motor vehicle and broadband industries (Knaude, 2001). However globalization is not economic phenomenon only and therefore requires a multivariate approach in taking its measurement. Swiss index has taken into consideration three key dimensions of globalization as political, economic and cultural effects taking some sub-indices like economic flows and restrictions, personal contact data, information flow and cultural proximity data which are available on annual basis. According to the Swiss index, Belgium is the most globalized country worldwide followed by Austria and Sweden while United Kingdom comes fourth followed by Netherlands (Agell, 1999). The Index has shown that Haiti is the least globalized countries followed by Myanmar and Burundi. Globalization has given forth to good and bad aspects which have affected countries in different ways. Movement of production materials and manufactured goods has given rise to emergence of worldwide markets and given consumers and firms a broader access to foreign products. The trade between China and Africa particularly has rise seven times fro the period between 2000 and 2007. Emergence of international financial markets has given customers worldwide access to external finance. This has however grown fast than the transnational regulatory regime and given rise to instability in the worldwide financial infrastructure as evidenced by the current financial crisis (Mishkin, 2009). Realization of a worldwide market where goods and capital are free exchange has a great economic realization while its interconnectedness would give great effects in case of one economy collapsing. For instance, every worldwide IT company has established its market in India, if Indias economy collapses this would have the adverse effects spread amongst many other economies (Buckley Ghauri, 2004). Globalization has greatly affected the health systems on a global scale where health has became a trade commodity especially in developing nations following the structural adjustment programs which have seen the health sector privatized and the health policy largely fragmented due to various private interests which have focused on partnerships as a way to fight the various problems instead of a comprehensive health strategy. Health policy has greatly been affected by the global trade and economy driven by the technological advancement which has given innovative medical care trade. At time the global priorities have run over the nation health care priorities making the health infrastructure more valuable to public the privatized form of health care which largely focuses on the wealthy (Dunning, 1998). Globalization has led to creation of governments with relaxed relationships and guaranteed social and economic rights. United State has over time taken a powerful position following its strong and wealthy economy. The republic of China has experienced rapid growth following globalization and with support from the United States. Economists have projected that if Chinas growth is maintained at that rate, this would bring a great change world wide in the next twenty years since it will mean power reallocation among world leaders with China being one of the wealthy and industrialized nations and this will rival the United States worldwide powerful position (Jones, 2008). Increased Informational flow between different geographical locations has brought technological change with the introduction of fibre optic communications and improved accessibility via telephone and Internet facility. Globalization has also increased competition due to worldwide market which has challenged different companies and industries to improve their products and skillfully use technology. Globalization has brought various ecological changes and environmental challenges due to cross boundary pollution of water and air and the overfishing of oceans as well as spread species which are invasive. This can be faced out through international cooperation, but its noted that most factories run their plants in developing nations where environmental regulations are lenient. As such globalization and free trade has largely increased pollution in these countries and deteriorated peoples standard of living. The world ecological capacity has proved insufficient to handle the ambitions of C hina, U.S, and Europe among other countries sustainably. Also globalization would bring about depletion of resources like zinc, terbium and indium, if U.S, China and India continue with the current consumption this would lead to conflict over diminishing natural-resources (Casson, 1996).Ã One classic cultural aspect of globalization is food consumption whereby people in China can be consuming American food while those in Africa can be consuming Italian meals. McDonalds is one of the American food companies with a global network of 31,000 locations worldwide and has had great cultural influence globally. In addition to international travel, migration and tourism internet has broken down cultural borders worldwide through enabling interaction and communication among people from different state, thus sharing different lifestyles and cultures even beyond the language barriers by use of photo sharing websites. Globalization has led to spread of multiculturalism where some come local cultures have been assimilated and others have been supplanted (Taylor, 2008). Globalization has however faced significant opposition internationally arguing that it has lowered the quality of life and increased the environmental degradation by reducing the competitiveness of some countries industries, and perhaps agriculture in nations that have not yet adapted to the changes brought by globalization (Daryl, 2009). The flow of information, products and people across countries has led to spread of deadliest diseases like HIV/Aids which still remain a top cause of death especially in Asia and Africa while the infectious disease actually began in America. Also, globalization played vital role in the recent bird flue which spread to different nations and killed several. Other diseases whose spread has been fueled by globalization include the chagas disease and tuberculosis (Bernstein Cashore, 2000). Globalization has created opportunities in developed and rich nations thereby driving talent from poor countries which has led to brain drains. This has cost Africa continent approximately $4.1 billion expatriate professionals yearly. Globalization negative economic liberalization effects are also manifested by the global financial crisis which has been as a result of interconnected states forming global economic system such as the crumple of subprime financial or mortgage market in U.S. The flow of products like televisions, textiles and others in the U.S have fueled expansion of Asian economies but has as well raised great criticism against Chinese textile products in Europe as well as in African countries (Levy-Livermore, 1999). For instance, the influx of Chinese textile goods in South Africa has led to loss of jobs by textile workers in that industry. Different studies show that, globalization has not fought Income disparity and food insecurity such that the three richest people worldwide owns more financial assets than what 10% of the poorest world population possess. For example, in sub-Saharan basin Africa communities continue to live in extreme poverty with studies indicating that almost half of children population in India is undernourished. Globalization opens door for a poor country to reach international market, and as such large corporations have taken advantage of such economies to facilitate export poverty such that they invest in these nations due to low wage rates and if the countries labor laws are changed in favor of employees the corporations close down and relocate to other countries with conservative economic policies (Zander Mathews, 2007). In conclusion, critics argue that globalization has led most poor countries suffer disadvantages since their exports are mainly agricultural products and they are unable to offer their producers subsidies which are enjoyed in the developed nations thereby lowering the prices for poor producers. Globalization also leads to exploitation of workers who are impoverished in these poor countries through cheap labor and weak labor unions (Taylor, 2008). Globalization is mediated depending of corporate interests which results to alternative institutional policies that address moral claims for both the poor and working population and environmental concerns in an equitable way. References Agell, J. (Feb, 1999). On the Benefits from Rigid Labour Markets: Norms, Market Failures, and Social Insurance .The Economic Journal. 109(453): 143-164. Amin, A. (Jun., 2004). Regulating Economic Globalization. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 29(2): 217-233 Barkema, H, G Drogendijk, R. (Dec., 2007). Internationalizing in Small, Incremental or Larger Steps? Journal of International Business Studies. 38(7): 1132-1148 Beall, J. (June 2004). Rethinking Globalization. Journal of Southern African Studies. 302(2):408-409 Bernstein, S Cashore, B.Ã (Mar., 2000). Globalization, Four Paths of Internationalization and Domestic Policy Change: The Case of EcoForestry in British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Political Science 33(1):67-99 Buckley, P.J Ghauri, P N. (Mar, 2004). Globalization, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies. 35(2):81-98 Casson, M. (1996).Ã An Economic Model of International Joint Venture Strategy. Journal of International Business Studies. 27(5): 849-876. Daryl, C. (2009). Transformational public diplomacy: Rethinking advocacy for the globalisationage. Place Branding Public Diplomacy. 5(2): 97-102. Dunning, J. H. (Sep., 1998). Governments, Globalization, and International Business. The Economic Journal. 108(450):1599-1601. Jones, A. (Jan 2008). The Rise of Global Work Transactions of the Institute of BritishÃ Geographers, New Series. 33(1): 12-26. Knaude, S. (Dec., 2001). Globalisation, Urban Progress, Urban Problems, Rural Disadvantages: Evidence from Mozambique. The Journal of Modern African Studies.39 (4):722-723 Lazear, E, P. (Mar., 1999). Globalization and the Market for Team-Mates The Economic Journal. 109(454):15-40 Levy-Livermore, A. (Jun., 1999). Reviewed work(s): Handbook on the Globalization of the World Economy. The Economic Journal .109(456):506-508. Mishkin, F, S. (Feb, 2009). Globalization, macroeconomic performance, and money policy. Journal of Money, Credit Banking (Blackwell).41(1):187-196. Ostry, S (Jan, 1998). Technology, Productivity and the Multinational Enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies. 29(1): 85-99 Rothstein, J.S. ((Sep., 2005). Economic Development Policymaking down the Global Commodity Chain: Attracting an Auto Industry to Silao, Mexico.Ã Journal of Social Forces. 84(1): 49-69. Taylor, P. J.Ã (Jan, 2008). City-States and Globalization: A Reply to Sidaway. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 33(1):152-153 Wood, A. (Sep., 1998). Globalization and the Rise in Labour Market Inequalities Economic Journal, 108(450): 1463-1482. Yeung, H. W. (Jul., 2002). The Limits to Globalization Theory: A Geographic Perspective on Global Economic ChangeÃ Ã Economic Geography. 78 (3): 285-305Ã Zander, I Mathews, J.A. (May, 2007). The International Entrepreneurial Dynamics of Accelerated Internationalization.Ã Journal of International Business Studies. 38(3):387-403
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Hepatitis C : The Silent Epidemic Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Did you know that over two hundred million people are infected with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)? Unfortunately it is true, and twenty five thousand more are infected each year. Out of these victims, three are acquaintances of mine. They are why I chose to research this Silent Epidemic. In this paper you will not only learn about the virus itself, but also ways to recognize and prevent it. The goal of this is to prevent the further spread of this disease, and furthermore to make you aware of your options if infected. Statistics Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hepatitis C affects approximately 1.8% of the population in the U.S. This accounts for nearly 4 million people. And this number is only growing. It has been estimated that twenty five to thirty five thousand new cases are diagnosed each year. What is the Hepatitis C Virus? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As you already know, the cells in the body respond to infection in many ways. One of these ways is inflammation. Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver. However, it does not affect the whole liver at once. The silent epidemic sneaks up slowly by causing damage to individual liver cells. This means, HCV progresses slowly over many years. How do you get Hepatitis C Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many risk factors that may lead to the spread the Hepatitis C Virus. In many cases symptoms are not visible until ten or even twenty years after the infection. Since treatments are based on the degree of infection, it is important to find this virus as soon as possible. Are you at risk? Ask yourself the following questions to find out! 1.) Have you received a blood transfusion prior to 1992? 2.) Have you had any solid organ transplants, such as your heart, liver, or kidney? 3.) Are you on long-term kidney dialysis? 4.) Are you a member of the healthcare field, in which you have had exposure to blood? 5.) Have you ever used recreational drugs? (Needles? Cocaine Straws?) 6.) Have you ever had high risk sex? (Anal? Multiple Partners?) 7.) Do you have a tattoo or body piercing? 8.) Do you live with, or have regular contact with an infected person? If so, do you share nail clippers, razors, or toothbrushes? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If you have answered yes to any of these questions, you are at a risk for having Hepatitis C. So now what can you do? Diagnosing Hepatitis C Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If you feel you may have been exposed t... ... Ribavirin Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ribavirin is a pill which is used along with alpha-interferon. It has been proven that this pill helps the alpha-interferon to work better. Patients who choose to take this pill are prescribed several pills a day. These pills must be take everyday along with regular alpha-interferon injections to positively affect the body. Goals of treatment Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are two basic goals of HCV treatment. The first goal is to have a sustained virologic response. This means that the virus will remain at an undetectable in the blood for six or more months after treatment. The second goal is an improved histologic response. An example of this is the decrease of liver inflammation, and the reduction of scarring of the liver.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hepatitis C is a silent epidemic. There is no vaccination, and no cure. The only way to prevent the spread of this disease is to be aware of your surroundings, and practice a clean way of living. Although there is treatment for Hepatitis C, it is a painful disease in its later stages. If you feel you have been exposed, please, do not hesitate to have yourself tested. The Hepatitis C Virus is, and will remain, a threat to your life.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The three theories I plan to discuss are Functionalism, Conflict, and Internationalism with education. The need for these theories is what actually makes the system in education work, with the teachers, parents, school boards and committees the institution of education continues to function. The first theory is Functionalism and is about the study by Lawrence Kohlberg. It has been forty-three years since Lawrence Kohlberg published his doctoral dissertation characterizing six stages of moral development and fourteen years since his death. During this period, much has been written that has discredited stage theory and the overarching use of justice as a Ã¢â¬Å"first principleÃ¢â¬ of moral development. Yet KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s evolving moral theory continues to be used as a theoretical basis for moral development research and to influence teacher education. While some educators have dismissed KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s approach as wooden and Ã¢â¬Å"fossilized,Ã¢â¬ it continues to be central to what teachers know about, and how they think about, moral development. 2] Indeed, one author suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"every psychology textbook published in the last quarter-century touches upon KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Ã¢â¬Å" This consistent message, coupled with continued public talk about character development and moral education in schools, makes it likely that KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s stage theory continues to influence classroom practice, consciously and unconsciously, across the United States, Henry, (2001). By exposing the structural-functionalist roots of KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, this essay raises concerns about the application of KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas in the classroom. Fundamentally, Kohlberg focuses on individual development, a universal conception of justice, and universalizability do not translate well to the institutional-level application that he hoped his Just Community Schools would provide. What Kohlberg failed to realize was that a collection of individuals using a Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Education universal conception of justice in consistent ways across situations (morally mature individuals by KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s standards) did not necessarily create a moral community. In a moral community, the degree to which individuals have grown along a continuum of moral development should not be of greater importance than the ability of community members to work together to detect and solve moral problems. Henry, (2001) Foundational to the Just Community model was KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that schools were important locations for the socialization of children into broader society. School was a childÃ¢â¬â¢s first formal introduction into society at large. By going to school Ã¢â¬Å"the child learns to fill the expected public roles of a member of his societyÃ¢â¬ (LKA, 21). Part of the power of schooling was the teaching of lessons necessary for successful life outside of school. In particular, Kohlberg stressed that students needed to gain an increased awareness of themselves in categorical terms.  In other words, he and his colleagues claimed that students needed to learn the categorical expectations to which they would be held publicly accountable and that school had an important function to play in teaching these lessons: [T]he child has to learn to be one among a crowd of peers in a classroom that is run by a relative impersonal authority figure who gives orders a power to wield praise and blame. What the child learns about how to handle Ã¢â¬Å"the crowds, the praise, and the powerÃ¢â¬ will, from this point of view, give shape to her public morality: her conception of how one ought to act to get along and even prosper in the public domain (LKA, 21). Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Education These statements make it clear that Kohlberg saw schools as important locations for gradually imbuing children with the expectations they would meet as adults, Henry, (2001). While Kohlberg was focused on the individual the theory of functionalism doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work. It works as a whole at a much larger level, the macro level, the institution of the schools. These system need function to run and for student to learn. With this in place there would dis-function children would not be able to learn and through the learning they learn how to enter into society and act accordingly in their roles into adulthood. The theory of Conflict in regards to education they are there, but one that comes to mind is the quality of the education that is given to students today. All the students are not looked at the same, if they come from a poor family or a minority family they are not thought of as equal in intelligence as the white middle to higher class of student. According to Conflict Theory, society is: A struggle for dominance among competing social groups (classes, genders, races, religions, etc. ). When conflict theorists look at society, they see the social domination of subordinate groups through the power, authority, and coercion of dominant groups. In the conflict view, the most powerful members of dominant groups create the rules for success and opportunity in society, often denying subordinate groups such success and opportunities; this ensures that the powerful continue to monopolize power, privilege, and authority. You should note that most conflict theorists oppose this sort of coercion and favor a more equal social order. Some support a complete socioeconomic revolution to socialism (Marx), while others are more reformist, or perhaps do not see all social inequalities stemming from the capitalist system Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Educational (they believe we could solve racial, gender, and class inequality without turning to socialism). However, many conflict theorists focus on capitalism as the source of social inequalities. The primary cause of social problems, according to the conflict perspective, is the exploitation and oppression of subordinate groups by dominants. Conflict theorists generally view oppression and inequality as wrong, whereas Structural-Functionalists may see it as necessary for the smooth running and integration of society. Structural-Functionalism and Conflict Theory therefore have different value orientations but can lead to similar insights about inequality (e. g. , they both believe that stereotypes and discrimination benefit dominant groups, but conflict theorists say this should end and most structural-functionalists believe it makes perfect sense that subordinates should be discriminated against, since it serves positive social ends). Conflict theory sees social change as rapid, continuous, and inevitable as groups seek to replace each other in the social hierarchy, McLeod, (2004). In contrast to Structural-Functionalists, who argue that the most talented individuals occupy the highest positions, conflict theorists argue that dominant groups monopolize positions of power, maintaining power from generation to generation and keeping subordinate groups out. Also in contrast to Structural-Functionalists, who argue that the most important positions in society are the best rewarded, conflict theorists argue that dominant groups get inordinate power to define which positions are socially rewarded. Highly-paid positions are not necessarily most important for society, they argue, but keep power in the hands of the privileged and powerful, McLeod, (2004). If conflict theory really see social change coming than that may mean the educators of this country may be starting to focus on the student and their intelligence instead of their financial status or race. Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Education The last theory Interactionism theory views society as the product of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ interaction with each other. Through the process of socialization, people learn values, attitudes, and actions that they deem to be correct. People are exposed to a set of reinforcements to maintain or change those views and actions. Learning theory helps explain why people view others in particular ways, such as who is good and who is bad. Our views may have little to do with objective reality. Learning theory may also explain the process in which people come to engage in behaviors that others find problematic, such as embezzling or prostitution. As Sutherland (1940) notes, people learn the motivations, beliefs, and actions to engage in behaviors that some may find problematic. Labeling theory explores how people socially construct reality. People in positions of power and authority have the ability to label an activity as problematic or acceptable; people in lower social positions are less likely to persuade others to stick with their definition of the situation. This is why elites are able to define a situation that benefits them as good, while others may regard it as troublesome. It also helps explain why people in lower classes are more likely to be perceived as the cause of problems, and why elites escape that definition. The reality of any social situation depends on how people define it. For example, when college students drink alcohol, is it partying, is it normal, is it binge drinking, is it alcohol abuse, are they a social drinker, a problem drinker, do they use it or abuse it? We may wish to determine how we will label the alcohol consumption based on when they drink, with whom they drink, how much they drink, what they drink, and what they do when they are drinking. Is the drinking a personal problem, a campus problem, or a social problem? These distinctions areFunctionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism in Education determined arbitrarily through the process of labeling. Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism underlying conditions probably existed for a long time before it was identified as an issue. The disagreement over whether something is a problem, how much of a problem it is, what and who caused it, and how it should be addressed is all a product of social construction created through the process of interaction, Vissing, (2011). I believe that between parents, teachers, students and the communities if they would allow each of themselves to be treated as people, students and human beings the educational process would be easier and more pleasurable experience and a happier and healthier environment. I know that is an impossibility but if were something even a few people would work at it may change the educational field a little bit at a time. To bring these three theories together to have a functional system, bring students in as one instead of the higher class and more social and control the groups of kids and the way they stand against each other there might be a chance to bring our education back on line and educate the students the way they should be educated and ready for the world after high school.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Dysphoria and Other Dys- Words Dysphoria and Other Dys- Words Dysphoria and Other Dys- Words By Maeve Maddox A reader has asked for a post on dysphoria. Dysphoria is the opposite of euphoria. Whereas euphoria is a feeling of well-being, dysphoria is a state marked by feeling of unease or discomfort. Perhaps the most familiar type of dysphoria comes from pangs of conscience: the bad feeling in the pit of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s stomach that results from having done something unkind or dishonest. Embarrassment is another kind of dysphoria, as is the sense of let-down that follows the euphoria felt by drug addicts and thrill seekers when the source of pleasure is withdrawn. Some psychologists have adopted the term Ã¢â¬Å"gender dysphoriaÃ¢â¬ in place of Ã¢â¬Å"gender identity disorder (GID)Ã¢â¬ to describe the feelings of people who experience a sense that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a mismatch between their bodies and their genders. English contains dozens of words that begin with dys-. The prefix denotes the meaning of bad or difficult. Most dys- words are scientific terms, many of them dealing with pathologies. A few have entered the common general vocabulary. Here are the most commonly heard dys- words: dysentery (noun): an often epidemic or endemic disease characterized by severe diarrhea. dysfunctional (adjective): impaired, not functioning as it should. dyslexia (noun): a learning disability characterized by varying difficulties in processing written language. dyspepsia (noun): severe indigestion. Figuratively, dyspepsia, together with its adjective form dyspeptic, refers to ill humor. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"Then it would be dismissed as a non-issue despite the fact that invariably the dyspetic editors of The Daily Mail would turn out to be proven correct!Ã¢â¬ dysplasia (noun): an abnormal growth or development. In dogs,Ã hip dysplasiaÃ is an abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause crippling lameness and painful arthritis of theÃ of the joints. dystopian (adjective): oppressive and miserable. The word dystopia is the opposite of utopia, a word coined to represent an ideal human society. Motion pictures that show a future in which people are oppressed by an intrusive government are said to present Ã¢â¬Å"a dystopian vision of the future.Ã¢â¬ dystrophy (noun): a wasting away of the body. Muscular dystrophy is a disorder characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles. Here are some less common dys- words that a few writers may find useful: dysgenic (adjective): exerting a detrimental effect on the race, tending towards racial degeneration. dyskinesia (noun): impaired motion. dysmenorrhea (noun): painful menstruation. dysphagia (noun): difficulty in swallowing. dysphonia (noun): impairment of the voice. dysrhythmia (noun): disordered rhythm in the brain waves. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Regarding Re:A While vs AwhileEnglish Grammar 101: Prepositions
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Puerto Rico essays In the late 19th century, Spain monopolized and colonized many countries including Puerto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines among others. In the same era, the native Philippinos under the guidance of their leader Aguilenaldo fought the Spanish with the help of the United States to win the War for their Independence. Stanley Karnow author and producer of the film, In Our Image portrayed the United States as expansionists through globalization. Karnow, an anit-impearlist, believed that the United States, which was once itself a colony should not empower and manipulate other people the way our forefathers, did. Captain Dewey and Alfred Mahan helped the United States to acquire foreign territory for the first time. After winning the war, Captain Mahan promoted Americans into Strategic thinking. His exposure of the war in the Philippines influenced him to write a book. His book, The Influence of Sea Power on History, gave guidance to president Roosevelt, the British, German and Japanese navies. The American government in its effort to have foreign domination and control disregarded one of the basic laws of the constitution, which specified that all men were created equally. The native Philippinos were thought of as inferior human beings by the imperialists of the Unites States who believed that it was their destiny to bring civilization to the ignorant races. The United States belief off Manifest Destiny was evident on the massacre of the indigenous people of the Philippines in 1901. The natives fought brilliantly for their independence, but lost the war to the United States that later colo nized them. The Philippines under the control of the United States was made a colony thereby excluding the natives from decision-making about their country and also deliberately deprived them of their independence. The native Philippinos became the children of the United States. The U.S colonizers whom control...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Female Genital Mutilation - Essay Example First, it will be good to note the most prevalent villages in the area that practice FGM. This information may be obtained from schools that is liaising with teachers to ask the students if they are practicing FGM back at home or from reports in hospital or chiefs office. Once the targeted area are identified, a committee is made to help come up with strategies of sensitizing people on the harm it causes to our women and urge members to be onÃ the lookout.Meetings are then held in specific villages as teachers are also told to educate students in schools of the dangers to the girl child especially on their health and economic impacts as described above. To help stop communities or families from practicing, rules are set that impede them but if one is caught, they have to adhere to the consequences.It is of importance to educate professionals in schools so that they help sensitize students on the dangers of FGM, this will help change the incoming generation, since they are in prepa ration, in health sectors it will be of importance because most people seek health services and in the part of health education, the health personnel will be able to educate the lucky few. This in general, will create professional support for women trying hard to educate the public on why FGM is a violation of human rights and has no medical value and in support, they will be able to minimize such acts if not eradicating. This has made people especially children grow knowing that it is one of their rights.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Anthropogenic Disturbance on Benthic Communitiy - Essay Example Although in the early days it was believed that there could be no life at the bottom of the sea, a steady production of energy deep down at the ocean floor has led to a thriving benthic community which may however be affected by environmental and anthropogenic changes. Investigation of benthic communities is done by deep sea diving and actually obtaining samples of such organisms from the ocean floor. Traps, dredging and investigation of seafloor sediments could be useful in establishing the biological nature of such communities. The benthic organisms are essential for the environment as they clean up the water and are responsible for re-mineralization of organic matter. Since benthic sea creatures are a diverse group with many functions, they also tend to form a major link in the biological chain. This project deals with the study of human disturbance on the benthic community and the changes in the structural and functional manifestations of these organisms when anthropogenic interventions are obvious in any ocean floor inhabited by these organisms. Dudgeon (2006) studied benthic invertebrates and their drift in eight streams within Northern Indonesia where rainforest streams and oceans are disturbed by anthropogenic activities. The benthic community studied were that found in Papua New Guinea and South East Asia and in general not predatory. The results indicated that the benthic communities were strongly affected by channelisation and conversion of forests to agriculture. Some benthic species were found to show drifting activities at night showing some sort of community reactions to changes in the external environment. Arasaki et al (2004) suggests that anthropogenic disturbance is one of the major problems in marine communities and any such disturbance could be quantified by using multivariate techniques for analysing the distribution of such communities. The results of the study showed that ecological trends are determined by faunal abundance and all central continental regions with widespread distribution of benthic communities seem to be affected by human activities. There are many studies that show the effects of fishing or dredging on the benthic commu
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Use your critical thinking skills to evaluate the article Why Does Our Collective Empathy So Often Fail to Manifest in Our Treatment of Refugees by Shami Chakrabarti - Essay Example The Council for At-Risk Academics (CARA) created to deal with academic related violence and persecution has dealt with numerous cases involving refugees. CARA has had to help a physics teacher of Iraqi origin who used to receive death threats after she had dared to challenge the in place religious beliefs. Another incident dealt with by CARA, which shows that people do not care about the refugees, is the case of a human rights lecture from Zimbabwe whom the state police thoroughly beat due to his so-called political activism. Chakrabarti does not understand why people treat refugees with much contempt and ignorance even when they are aware of their sad struggle stories. One of the likely reasons suggested by Chakrabarti as to why people forget these sad refugee stories is due to the emotional distance that exists between refugees and people of the country, and this makes people forget these sad refugee stories. Chakrabarti in the article suggests that the government has let these refugees down, and the work of taking care of refugees has been left to organizations such as CARA. According to Chakrabarti, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s main task is to enforce grinding poverty to refugees, which has been possible because people allow them. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s reluctance and bad policies intended to help refugees can be best illustrated by the case of a Pakistani woman who fled to the United Kingdom after been physically attacked by her husband for the mere wish of wanting to finish her Ph.D. On arriving in the UK, the woman did not have a home or something to eat until CARA came to her rescue. Due to CARAÃ¢â¬â¢s limited resources that they have, the issue of dealing with refugees is overwhelming them. It is up to people of goodwill who appreciate the vital and useful work CARA does take up the responsibility of supporting the