Wednesday, July 31, 2019
People talk a lot about personality or behavior as if itÃ¢â¬â¢s such an uncomplicated and unfussy concept, but they end up having difficulty defining it when asked. They are apt to say that it (behavior or personality in general) is something a person Ã¢â¬Å"has. Ã¢â¬ They describe the behavioral components of particular people in words like Ã¢â¬Å"friendly,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"nice,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"forceful,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"aggressive,Ã¢â¬ to paint a picture of what they mean by the term and as a result end, instead, in vague descriptions of how a person usually behaves with other people.On the other hand, when we base our descriptions on concrete and observable actions that people commonly do or adapt, we come up with what experts call as Ã¢â¬Å"behavioral profile. Ã¢â¬ There are different styles of behavior as well as there are no right and wrong profile. When we come up with correct profiling, the expected result is that we develop ways of getting to know a more concise and a ccurate picture of ourselves, or people in general. Personality is more than poise, charm, or physical appearance. It includes habits, attitudes, and all the physical, emotional, social, religious and moral aspects that a person possesses.However, to be more precise, the explicit behavioral styles covered in the course, perhaps, best captivate an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and how he/she is understood. With the different behavioral styles, an overall pattern of various characteristics is seen. Like a Ã¢â¬Å"psychograph,Ã¢â¬ a personÃ¢â¬â¢s profile is pulled together and at a glance, the individual can be compared with other people in terms of relative strengths and weaknesses. Discussion As a person possessing the characteristics given under the Steadiness Style category, I know and accept that this kind of profile has its strong and weak points.People with this behavioral style, working in the sphere of influence or organization they are placed at present, with the distin ctive blind spots commonly tied with this behavior, will (in spite of its comeliness) also experience certain setbacks, especially if the Ã¢â¬Å"weaknessesÃ¢â¬ of this behavior are left unaddressed. Strengths of Steadiness Style People under the profile of Steadiness Style are found to be demonstrative, sympathetic, helpful, compassionate, and caring. Unlike the other behavioral styles, these descriptions are common to someone who enjoys people and takes pleasure in working directly with the concerns of individual persons.This is my type. Most of my colleagues and clients find me pleasant. They observe and appreciate the positive traits (strengths) of my Ã¢â¬Å"style. Ã¢â¬ I have the ear to listen to whatever people would want to say or express. I am naturally a very loyal friend and therefore can be trusted. For me, it is not difficult to work with different people, and thus, I am good at working in a team. My co-workers easily relate to me as we do our work together. Our tas ks in the office are often expedited because of the mutual support we give each other.The positive atmosphere or lack of it in certain places, I observe, is due to different styles, or rather, to the many weaknesses of other behavioral styles. My type of behavior createsÃ¢â¬Å"lightnessÃ¢â¬ in ambiance, for it is more of other-centered type. It seeks to help and understand. Steadiness Styles go along with others well even when they find certain Ã¢â¬Å"traitsÃ¢â¬ in others which are disagreeable. It is always important to keep oneÃ¢â¬â¢s composure and to keep the boat calmly sailing. Because of this optimistic outlook that S Style has, people tend to respond in like manner. It begets the same trust, same sympathy, and same support.Weaknesses of Steadiness Style As I have mentioned above, although this behavioral style has its strengths, it also has its weaknesses. In my case, I do not want to disturb the regularity of the condition of my world. I do not want to do things that will somehow upset the status quo. This, I believe, is the main weakness of Steadiness Style. All of the good characteristics of this style might be attributable to this same weakness. In other words, the good points which make Steadiness Style attractive are actually, or may actually be, its way to compensate for its main weakness.From this fear of instability proceeds coping mechanisms which are likeable traits that can actually win people. One of the weaknesses of my style is the fear of risks. Because I do not want to face an unknown future, my tendency is to maintain the security of the present. I do not want to impose certain changes, even when it is necessary, for fear of failure. I am distressed with the prospect of disruptions in my work. If ever there are necessary and inevitable changes that must be taken, I must think them through, create certain schemes/plans, and assimilate the inescapable changes into my world.Steady Style people have difficulty coping with unexpecte d distractions and therefore must always endeavor to maintain poise, constancy, and equilibrium. Another weakness attributable to person with S Style is his/her slowness in decision making. I could not decide alone. I want to include other people Ã¢â¬â my colleagues Ã¢â¬â in any decision that needs to be done. To involve people in decision-making process is in itself cannot be called a weakness. There are times when opinions or expertise of others need to be sought to arrive at a more accurate diagnosis of the real situation; these are times when suggestions and advices are priceless.However, to be held back from a crucial and necessary decision, merely because of fear of implementing necessary steps that might be unpopular in initial stages but beneficial in the long haul, is indecisiveness. It is a weakness which I find interwoven with all the good peculiarities of the Steady type. Conclusion Although there might be more Ã¢â¬Å"strengthsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"weaknessesÃ¢â¬ at tributable to Steadiness Style, what have been discussed here in this paper is enough to guide and enable one to understand this type of behavior.A systematic profiling of behaviors is designed to assist anybody Ã¢â¬â employees and employers/managers alike Ã¢â¬â to gain a better understanding of the differences inherent in different behavioral styles, and so be able, as a result, to work proficiently with other people who are framed with diverse styles of behavior. Remember, there is/are no right and wrong profile/s. Each behavioral profile is distinct and has its combined strengths and weaknesses. Our different styles are just statements of our uniqueness/distinctives on how we opt to do things.When understood properly, these differences of styles can be utilized to achieve excellent ends. If, on the other hand, this crucial understanding of behavioral types is bypassed, it creates a myriad of otherwise preventable problems. It is important that Ã¢â¬Å"blind spotsÃ¢â¬ be p ut into light as in the case of Steadiness Style treated in this paper. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to think of this Ã¢â¬Å"typeÃ¢â¬ as having negative sides. According to studies, it is of the four styles, the most people-oriented. How could such a style retain with it bad qualities when it appears to be so Ã¢â¬Å"selflessÃ¢â¬ in nature?I have given the answers to the question when I pointed out the weaknesses of this behavioral style. With the understanding then that is gained through the discussion in this paper, the hope and prospect of the writer is better working relations with others who do not possess the same style of behavior as the one treated here. Reference 1. ________ Behavioral Styles. (please fill in your source for the file you uploaded here). 2. Bruce, Debra. 2005 in http://www. debrabruce. com/articles/DiSC-behavior-styles. php 3. D'Innocenzo, Len. 2005. in www. crkinteractive. com.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The moons of Saturn are a very interesting topic to research. Before beginning this amazing journey on the moons, first we must do a brief overview of the planet Saturn. Saturn is the sixth largest planet from the sun; it is very large and does not have very much water. This research paper will explore the different moons, the names, atmosphere, similarities and sizes of the moons. Saturn has 62 moons that have been discovered but only 52 have been given an official name while the others still are waiting to have specific information found out about them to give them a name. Only 18 moons have been officially sanctioned by the International Astronomical Union. The names of the moons come from characters in Greek and Roman mythology. The moons are made up of about 30 to 40 percent rock and about 60 to 70 percent water. The Saturn Moons so diversity in many area, letÃ¢â¬â¢s explore their differences. Since there are too many to name we will discuss the more poplar moons. Pan- Named a fter the Greek God of the wild, it is about 20km in diameter and its mass is 11x 10 15th lbs. Saturn is at a distance of 83,000 miles and has an orbital period around Saturn is 13.8 hours. Pan was discovered in 1990 by the Voyager team. A Pan orbit within the Encke Gap which is located in the SaturnÃ¢â¬â¢s A ring. The Encke Gap is a space in the A ring that helps Pan to orbit around Saturn. Helene- named after Greek goddess Helene popularly known as Helene of Troy and the name means torch. HeleneÃ¢â¬â¢s moon is an irregular shape in body and is measured about36 x 32 x 30 km in diameter. The moon orbits Saturn at 234,500 in distance and its mass is 8x 10by 17. The surface materials are composed of particularly dark and organic rich mater and condense ices. Helene was discovered by P. Laques and J. Leacheus in the year 1990. Dione- Named afterÃ Greek goddess Dione and the mother for Aphrodite she was describe as a temple associate. Dione is about 1,118km is diameter and has a density of 1.43gm/cm the rest is ice. The temperature is extremely cold and the distance from Saturn is 377,400 km, and includes crater area that measure about 100 km in diameter. Dione was discovered in 1684 by Giovanni Cassini. Rhea- Named after the god of fruitfulness the mother of Poseidon. Rhea is far away from and the second largest moon of Saturn. It is 1,528 km in size, its distance from the sun is 527,040 and it mass is2.31 x 10 sub 21 kg. RheaÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature is cold like Dione and only one side of its surface faces Saturn. The surface of Rhea is a mixture of ice and rock similar to a frozen dirty snowball. Dione was discovered in 1672 by Giovanni Cassini. Mimas- Named after the Greek god giant of war. It looks like a bullÃ¢â¬â¢s eye by viewing in space. The surface of is covered with impact craters due to shock waves that happens on the moon which measure is size of about 40 kg . It is also very low in density and is composed of mostly water with small amounts of rock. The distance from Saturn is 185,520km, the period of orbit around Saturn is 22.6 hrs and its mass is 3.81 x 10 sub 19kg. The temperature of Mimas is minus 344 degrees Fahrenheit. It was discovered by Williams Herschel in 1789. Enceladus- Named the god that was responsible for tremors and volcanoes, and he was considered the leader of the giants. Distance from the Saturn is 237,378 km, about 512 x 494Ãâ"489 km in diameter, its mass id 1.2 x 10 sub 20 kg. The period Encelasus orbit around Saturn is 32.8 hours. It is also covered in water ice and is about -330 degrees Fahrenheit. It also reflects the sunlight. It was di scovered by Williams Herschel in 1789. Titan- Named after group Greek gods who ruled the cosmos. Titan is largest of the SaturnÃ¢â¬â¢s moon and is the most Earthlike of its kind; it looks a lot like a frozen version of the plant earth. The surface is very cold; it has a temperature of -290 degrees Fahrenheit and has a thick atmosphere but does not hold gravity well. TitanÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere has an altitude 10 times higher than or nearly 600 km into space as oppose to the earth. According to a space expedition in 1980 by the Voyager 1Titan showed to only have air pressure of one and a half at sea level and four times as dense of the earth. Titan has chemical readings is mostly gas about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, which are two chemicals that are present in earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface. Nitrogen help produces this thick smog like cloud that can hold water andÃ produces rain. With the help of methane which is a gas allows the cloud s rain to produce or rain down liquids similar to gasoline. Titan orbits Saturn 1.2 million km or 745,000 miles it take16 days to make complete circle. The radius is 2,575 km and 112 km in diameter. The Greek mythology of how the naming group of Titans , hence thus the naming of the moons came about, the Titans devoured the limbs of Dionysus, the son of Zeus (the god of thunder and war) was intended to have dominion over the world. Zeus was so angry he struck the titans with lighting and the fire burned them to ashes. The moons of Saturn are too numerous to number, just like the story of the Titans. They all have their own characteristics, this paper only names a few, here are the rest: Aegean, Aegir, Albiorix, Anthe, Benhionn, Bergeimir, Calypso, Dapjnis, Epimetheus, Erriapus, Farbauti, Fenrir, Fornjot, Greip, Hati, Hyperion, Hyrrokkin, Lapetus, Lijraq, Janus, Jamsaxa, Kari, Kiviug, Loge, Methone, Mundifari, Narvi, Paaliaq, Pallene, Phoebe, Polydueces, Siamaq, Skadi, Skoll, Suttung, Tarqeq, Telesto, Tethys, Thrym, Ymir. The names of these moons will continue to grow as new moons are discovered. The moons will begin the naming process which astronomer gives each moon a temporary name that will follow this format S/2011-S1. The first S stands for Saturn and the second S after the stands for its satellite or location in space. Then the names are assigning by the International Astronomical Union. In conclusion, with the study of the moons of Saturn we learned that some range very large in size. We also learned the amount of time it takes each moon s to orbit Saturn. The time varies amongst the moon of Saturn. The all of the temperature each of the moons are too cold for human life to be sustained, and the surfaces of each one of the moons are somewhat similar; with the exception of the moon Titan. During the study of the Titan moons the discovery of the similarities between the planet Earth and TitanÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere. The naming of the moons came from Greek mythology and the history of the Greek gods were interesting the in its own way. Finally, scientists are still discover ing new moons in SaturnÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere, as of today there are only 53 moons officially named; who knows how many more are lurking out there. References The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved November 29, 2011 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Pan-ast.html Hatzitsinidou, Evangelia. (2005-2011). Greek-Gods.Info Gods and Goddess of Ancient Greece. October 26,2011, http://www.greek-gods.info/greek-mythology/a.php Munsell,Kirk. (2011). Cassini Solstice Misson. November 23, 2011, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov./science/mooms
Monday, July 29, 2019
Reflective Journal On Capsim Business Simulation - Essay Example During our engagement in teamwork, there are a number of things that I learnt. By participating in the decision making, I learnt the importance of teamwork. Teamwork involves the work done by several associates with every member of the team playing a single part, but all members contributing individually to the success of the entire process. While working in a team, conflicts are likely to arise. Initial steps of a team are marred with collision as the team members try to understand one another. As the team cohesion grows, it becomes easy to solve any form of arising conflicts. There are benefits of working in a group. Among these benefits, problem solving especially whenever a crisis arises is important. While working in a team, accomplishing a task is easier and faster as decisions are reached faster (Bell 2011, p. 93). Every member of the group contributed their individual unique knowledge into the task, subsequently improving our results. Through the simulation process, I underst ood the essence of making effective and informed decisions that are results oriented. Decision making involves selecting the most appropriate and viable course of action from available alternatives (Adair 2010, p. 12). Decision making is a process that involves reasoning and evaluation of the consequences involved. A number of factors constrain the success of a team and the achievement of its goals. To a large extent, these problems can cripple the operations of a team (Macmillan 2001, p. 17). However, identifyin
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Telecommunication center - Business Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
Telecommunication center - Business Plan - Essay Example By accepting this document, you agree to be bound by these restrictions and limitations. Executive Summary Date Recipient's Name, Title Street Address City, State Zip Code Dear Sir/ MaÃ¢â¬â¢am: We are Q-Tele Inc, a startup telecommunications company aiming to offer alternative cellular and data services to the US Market. The company is still in its planning stage, and is looking at being able to start operations by October of this year. Currently, we are still putting together the backbone facility of the service and looks at completing this before the 4th quarter of this year. Q-Tele is Sales and Marketing driven, and will invest heavily on equipment purchase, ensuring the telecommunication infrastructure is competitive and will promise to bring better service to the target market. Upon setting up of important facilities, the owner will then proceed investing on marketing and sales tools that would bring the group to market consciousness. The owners are likewise planning for globa l expansion by forging tie ups with global service providers in ensuring connectivity among the target market. The succeeding sections will discuss the plans and goals, and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business objectives. ... The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision is focused on products and services that are technologically superior. The main value proposition is to enhance business and personal communications that would benefit the target market. Business Goals and Objectives Management aims to establish and stabilize business operations by the end of the third month, and have all start up loans paid up by the end of the second year in business. The owners would like to be able to open business stocks also by the end of its second year in business. Operations are being targeted to commence by October 2013. There will be soft selling of services by start of June. Dealer acquisition will start by end of April 2013, and potential dealer-retailers shall undergo a training program to ensure that they are aligned with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business goals and mission vision. All needed manpower to fully support the operations should already be in by June 2013. Initial facility acquisition has commenced December of last yea r, and setting up the infrastructure to support the network operations would take approximately six months from completion of site acquisition. Business History Q-Tele is a startup telecommunications company in an industry that already has several players. The business goals may seem ambitious but the owners are optimistic that they would be able to reach the objectives by bringing in a management team with varied expertise in the telecommunication business operations. Headquarters will be located at ____________________. There will be dealers and retailers from all parts of the United States. Eventually, there will be expansion programs in key areas in US. SWOT Analysis Strengths 1. Q-Tele offers a fresh approach to retail telecommunications by providing a dedicated after sales
Saturday, July 27, 2019
American Teen Conflict Analysis Paper - Movie Review Example This is to mean that the nature, extent and frequency of the American teen conflict are factors that have strong underpinnings in films as forms of literary works, as shall be seen in the discussion that ensues forthwith. 1) Self-esteem, social comparisons, and self-expectations In the movie American Teenagers, it is given that self-esteem, social comparisons and self-expectations combine to form a complex whole of teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ interpersonal skills. The manner in which self-esteem and social comparison are portrayed is seen in the apportioning of the roles the main characters play. There is Colin Clemens, a basketball jock, Megan Krizmanich, the popular, liberal and academically talented girl, Jake Tusing, the self-acclaimed nerd and Hannah Bailey, the rebel artist, writer, musician and aspiring filmmaker. It is important to note that the traits of these four main characters in American Teenagers are the very values that American teenagers identify with. For instance, because mo st American teenagers are liberal, neither does conservatism rarely fit in among them, nor do those who identify with conservative ideals. It is for this same reason that Hannah Bailey, the rebel, has liberal views that are considered unfit for Warsaw, a small town which is very conservative. This creates conflict between American teenagers and the society at large. ... Mitch and Hannah for instance become friends and develop a relationship, following the verbal communication they have together. This verbal communication is also enabled by listening and disclosure. Just like other forms of communication, even teenage relationships are highly dependent upon verbal communication which comprises listening and disclosure. Immediately this chain of listening and disclosure is broken, conflicts arise. Mitch and Bailey forfeit their friendship after Mitch ends their relationship through a text message, for instance. 3) Nonverbal communication, power and attraction Nonverbal communication is also presented in the movie, as part of teenage conflict, but not as a causative agent for the conflict. Instead, nonverbal communication is treated in the movie as part of detachment, given that it flocks like-minds together and the unlike-minded apart. It is for this reason that though being a geek (a quality that sells an individual to the outside world) and having l ove for marching band (an outdoor activity), Tusing remains an introvert who resorts to video games. This development brings a twist to TusingÃ¢â¬â¢s life, by opening up another line of conflict. Tusing longs for a girlfriend but his introverted mien keeps him from getting one. Friedberg, Garcia and McClure help understand that the case above is underpinned and compounded by the fact that in teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ psychology, power and attraction are predicated upon being outgoing and good-looking. It is for this reason that Mitch Reinholt is popular at school. He is handsome, laid back and loves sport. The fact that Reinholt gets wider coverage immediately he begins to date Hannah, is a matter that demonstrates the
Friday, July 26, 2019
Case Study Example While this move is anticipated to benefit ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s trading partners, since they will be in a position to reap the benefit of a flexible currency exchange rate, which includes increasing the value of their exports to China, there is some dissent view amongst some economists, that doing that will have a negative implication on China and consequently on its trading partners (Alfaro and Tella, 7). On the event that China would make its currency exchange rate more flexible, a high rate of deflation will be experienced in China, which would result to economic decline. This is because; making the exchange rate flexible would mean that the Chinese currency will lose some value relative to other currencies, such as the US dollar. This would mean that the cost of doing business in china will increase, since the multinational corporations and other foreign investments to china will be force to cater for the cost of increased inflation. This might result to having most of the foreign inves tments or the multinational companies moving out of the Chinese market, and seeking to invest in other countries, where the cost of doing business will be relatively lower (Alfaro and Tella, 18). ... The Chinese economy operated under the principles of communism, until reforms were introduced to make it a socialist economy, with private ownership of property and increased reforms in agriculture, state-owned enterprises, banking sector, trade and foreign investment policies, which saw China increase its GDP growth by 9.5% annually, and increase its trade from 10% of GDP to 79% of GDP between 1978 to 2004 (Alfaro and Tella, 15). The most significant change was in foreign investment policies, where China pursued policies that allowed for high foreign investment, resulting to having 50% of Chinas exports being produced by foreign investors by 2004 (Alfaro and Tella, 16). China pursued foreign direct investment into its economy more than borrowing loans, an aspect that saw the FDI account for more than 70% of its capital inflow in the early 2000s. However, the pressure of investment into china reached to a position of imbalance with the household consumption, prompting the Chinese gov ernment to slow down its pursuit for investment, to encourage household consumptions, so that the pressures of investment and consumption would level off. Thus, as opposed to focusing on revaluing the exchange rates, the Chinese government started focusing on domestic policies that would enhance consumption starting 2005 (Alfaro and Tella, 22). Both the domestic policy and the exchange rate revaluation have the impact of increasing deflationary pressure, while increasing the cost of doing business for foreign investors. This calls for a further adjustment to such businesses, which may include increasing their sales in China to cover up for the increased costs, or shifting their businesses to other countries which have less cost of doing business. Therefore, as much as there
American Education Today - Essay Example Society has no other institutions upon which it can rely in the matter. If schools and colleges do not emphasize rigorous intellectual training, there will be none. This is not true of the other services that educational agencies may incidentally render. It is well for the schools to pay attention to public health, for example, but if they are unable to do so, the health of the nation will not go uncared for. Puritan values and beliefs became a part of education system and pedagogy. The crucial doctrinal issues of the century concerned questions about human nature and God's grace. In what manner did God communicate redemption How might an individual transcend sin and find salvation How did God elevate a soul into union with Himself Protestants from the beginning rejected Catholic teaching concerning a "divine spark" that survived the Fall and remained unblemished by Original Sin. Following Stubblefield and Keane (1994) puritan philosophies reflected in education and brought religious values to curriculum. Freedom was indeed one pole of the Puritan axis, but order was the other. The new order was to be rooted in biblical authority and precedent. If any people ever were, Puritans were people of the Book. The new order they created, and the world view that undergirded it, was meticulously scriptural in nature. "Puritans rejected liturgical traditions, no matter how venerable, that had no di scernible basis in the Bible, replacing them with worship and devotional practices seen as more soundly scriptural" (Karier 1991, 34). At the same time, as we have seen, some devotional themes and methods with slight scriptural foundation were so strong that they were able to survive the transition from medieval Catholicism to New England Puritanism. New England's participation in this moral system is well known and persisted through the century even as the society itself changed. Education system introduced religious education and teaching as the main subject studied during the colonial era. Today, religion is still of vital importance for private and public schools. Puritan philosophy brought to education ideas of sin and guilt, honesty and patience (Karier 1991). Puritan emphasis on literacy, based on the Protestant insistence that individuals must be able to read their own Bibles, was a further iconoclastic and socially divisive element in Puritan devotion. Puritanism encouraged believers to read, meditate, and pray on their own. Meditation focused on personal experience, and prayers expressed personal hopes and concerns. Puritanism was not only a lay movement; like radical religious movements in Europe generally, it was also a women's movement. In their writing, Gordon and Gordon (2002) state that women formed the "front line in defense of their preachers" under persecution in England, and women emerged as leaders and "prophets" among radical groups throughout the Civil War. The first Latin grammar school was opened in 1635 for high social classes including clergy and state officials. The preliminary grammar or Latin curriculum also became compartmentalized, entrusted to specialist grammar teachers. The effect of this new specialization of education is well known at the university level: scholasticism became ever more preoccupied with the
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Impact of Modern Day Terminals in the Success of an Air-Cargo Operation - Assignment Example This has resulted in an increased preference for air travel due to the urgency of travelers and nature of goods which favors faster and efficient means of transport (Hanley, 2003). The modern airport terminals are therefore designed to handle increasing demand for passenger and cargo travels efficiently. Modern air cargo terminals are equipped with current facilities to handle different types of commodities. For example, there are cold rooms for storing fresh commodities such as agricultural produce which requires proper handling (Edwards, 2005). They are also equipped with compartments for handling live animals. Other equipment fitted to improve delivery of services includes well-secured rooms for valuable commodities to ensure their safety, and separate stores for items which release emissions, and others for storage of chemicals (Cambridge Systematic, Inc. Landrum & Brown, 2011). The modern terminals have well-trained staff which ensures smooth operations at the terminals. Their activities include handling of commodities, documentation, and verification of procedures. Since most of the terminals are automated, these processes are easier to implement online, therefore doing away with undue delays at the terminals (Edwards, 2005). Different airports have improved communication services both internal and externally to improve control of aircraft and ensure there are no interruptions due to two or more planes arriving at the same time (Hanley, 2003). This has also helped in reducing cases of accidents from plane crashes. Terminals capacities have been expanded to handle increasing demand for storage of goods and reception of passengers. They are fitted with different sections for handling imports and other for exports (Edwards, 2005). This separation of activities has eased unnecessary delays which otherwise occurs due to poor coordination of processes.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Education In Texas - Essay Example However, due to the enforcement of accountability system has successfully created various educational changes in the state. As a result, a clear improvement has been observed in high-poverty schools with a gradual increase in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic achievements. The paper critically analyzes different reforms and evolution of public education in Texas over the years in a detailed manner, which was implemented to meet the needs of stateÃ¢â¬â¢s diverse population. These educational reforms revolve around the improvement of the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s educational goals, to promote accountability in order to attain achievements by the students and to improve the efficiency of public schools. Background of Public School Education in Texas: Education in Texas holds an eminent position. People in Texas are highly concerned about the education of their children. The Texas Declaration of Independence (1836) has pointed out the many errors committed by the Mexican government in establishing a uniform educational policy within the state. For the first time in 1840, the very first Anglo-American public school law was enforced in Texas which was aimed to support public school in each county. Soon after the law was passed, another step was taken by the state government in 1845. In the state constitution of 1845, it has been mentioned that the state government would give away one-tenth of the annual state tax revenue in the support and development of the public schools. During the same year, another school law was enforced by the state government. ... Public education in Texas has remained in continuous evolution. It faced another change after the Civil war and Reconstruction, when the new constitution of the new state in 1876, granted 45 million acres of public land in the support of public schools and passed the instructions that the revenue generated from the new Permanent School Fund would be put in bonds. However, again in 1884, the law for public school was rewritten. Many amendments were made in the Permanent School Funds Program (Source: TEA). The Current Situation of Public School Education in Texas: Recently, different laws have been introduced in the state which gave liberty to all and every city and town to develop and administer their own schools. As a result, different independent schools in various districts have been established. During 1900, there were 526 districts in which the high schools were given the primary status in public school education. But recently, it has been estimated that there are around 1039 ind ependent schools in Texas State. In 1911, another law was passed for the betterment and development of the rural high school education. This law revolved around giving support to the teachers by the state in their salaries and expansion of rural schools in the districts (Gene Preuss). With the passage of time, a remarkable improvement in the education was observed. However in late 1939, the first-term Texan Governor W. Lee OÃ¢â¬â¢ Daniel highlighted many problems that were faced by the public schools especially in rural areas. He termed those problems as, Ã¢â¬Å"inequalities of opportunities in public school system (Gene Preuss).Ã¢â¬ According to his studies and research, rural schools were faced with
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Quality management - Assignment Example In this experiment, a one half fractional experiment was conducted. It was done in k Ã¢â¬â 1 runs. The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of five factors on a coil spring. The free height of the spring was denoted as y. The goal of the experiment was to obtain a height of eight inches or a height as close to eight inches as possible. The number of factors used was five, while the number of runs was sixteen with three replicates for each run. The experiment was a 2k Ã¢â¬â 1 design, thus it was a one half fractional factorial experiment. It was denoted as 25 Ã¢â¬â 1. Based on the evaluation of the cause and effects, the following factors and factor levels were chosen for the experiment. Below is a table of the factors and the factor levels for both high denoted by a plus sign and low depicted by a minus sign. From the determined factors and factor levels the fractional factorial experiment was conducted. This was because the number of runs needed for a full factorial experiment would have been a lot. Because the resources at hand coupled with the knowledge that the relations would not be of concern, a 25 Ã¢â¬â 1 fractional factorial was used. The design matrix and the height data are given in the table below. Thus, the design was not able to differentiate D from ABC. Effect D which was the main effect was aliased with the interaction ABC. Hence, D was equal to ABC which meant that I was equal ABCD. I was the column of plusÃ¢â¬â¢s which was the characteristic element in the set of multiplications. I is equal to ABCD was the characterizing relation for the 25-1 design experiment. This means that all the effect aliasing relations are: A = BCD, B = ACD, C = ABD, D = ABC, AB = CD, AC = BD, AD = BC, E = ABCDE, AE = BCDE, BE = ACDE, CE = ABDE, DE = ABCE, ABE = CDE, ACE = BDE, BDE = BCE. The main effect is named clear if it is not aliased with other main
Monday, July 22, 2019
Hcs 430 Week 2 Essay Regulatory Agency paper Name HCS/430 Legal issues in Health Care: Regulations and Compliances September 27, 2010 Instructor Regulatory Agency paper The Joint Commission is an agency that maintains partnership with the government to help improve the standards of health care within the United States. The Joint Commission accredits health care organizations and health care programs by setting standards to help improve the quality and safety of health care. The Joint Commission work closely and collaborates with government officials and legislation by ensuring health care organizations in the United States meet specific guidelines, set by The Joint Commission, which health care services provided are delivered with the highest quality and safety for the patients they service. Generally, health care organizations elect to have the joint Commission evaluate their facility through surveyors who work under a Board of Commissioners that is made up of health care experts that advocate for consumers. History The history of The Joint Commission dates back to the early 1900s. Earnest Codman M.D. created a system that would help hospitals track their patients from the beginning of admission through discharge. The proposed result system help hospitals determine if the patients care was successful. The results influenced future patient care. By 1917, the American College of Surgeons proposed a certification program for hospitals. The first minimum standards for hospitals were also developed in 1917.Very few hospitals met the proposed standards. By the 1953, the American College of Surgeons transformed their hospital certification program to the Joint Commission. The Joint Commission started accrediting hospitals in that same year. The Joint Commissions sponsors included the American College of Physicians, the American Hospital Association, and the American medical Association (The Joint Commission, 2010). Through the years, many notable changes were made, including the accreditation program for all health care organizations. Standards were developed for every accreditation program and updated eachÃ year. In 1987, the Joint Commission organization changed to the Joint commission on Accreditation of Health care Organizations (JCAHO) to reflect the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission. During the 1990s the organization focused on performance improvement and measurement outcomes. By the early 2000s, the Joint Commission designed pathways that focused on improving the accreditation process and establishing goals for improving the patient safety and quality of care. Source and Scope of Authority The Joint Commissions main source of authority is governed by the Board of Commissioners that consists of a diverse group of health care experts. The corporate members include the American College of Physicians, the American College of Surgeons, the American Dental Association, the American Hospital Association, and the American Medical Association. The Joint commission also works closely with Congress to improve the quality and safety of health care (The Joint Commission, 2010). Structure The structure of the Joint commission is made of a diverse group of health care experts that seek to improve health care services. The Joint CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s Board of Commissioners and the corporate members collaborate on setting standards and requirement for health care organizations for improving health care and safety practices within the United States. The Joint Commission has set multiple standards for different health care programs. The standards and requirements must be approved by the Board of Commissioners. The Joint Commission also consists of several board committeesÃ¢â¬â¢ that have specific areas of interest, such as executive, accreditation, performance measurement, standards, survey procedures. The Joint Commission also has a Board of directors who help provide consults to health care and focuses on global accreditation. The board members also serve as liaisons to many groups and committees that are affiliated with the Joint commission (The Joint Commission, 2010). Day-To-Day Responsibilities The responsibilities of the Joint Commission are to set standards to help improve the quality of health care services and provide safety guidelines for health care organizations. Their mission as a nonprofit organization is to continuously improve health care (The Joint Commission, 2010). The JointÃ Commission accredits and certifies health care organizations by surveying facilities to ensure health care standards, performance measurements, safety guidelines have been implemented and carried out for better patient. The Joint commission sets standards and guidelines in compliance with federal laws to evaluate health care services. Health care organizations generally volunteer to seek accreditations from the Joint Commission by allowing expert surveyors evaluate their facility. The surveyors are made up of a multi-disciplinary team that spends an average of two days inspecting health care facilities. The purpose for the inspection is to evaluate a health care facilities standards, staff, regulations, policies and procedures, and quality improvement, and performance measurement. The Joint Commission surveyors generally look to see if the organizations governing board is taking part in ensuring that the facilities has facilitated safety and quality assurance program. In order for a health care organization to qualify for an accreditation, they must certain requirements. The requirements that health care facilities must meet before applying for an accreditation are, the organization must be located the United States and governed under the United States government, the facility works on improving quality of care, the facility has an indication of services provided, the facility addresses the standards set by the Joint Commission, the facility meets the requirements Medicare and Medicaid. Other responsibilities of the Joint Commission are to strengthen the safety of patients and build the trust and confidence of communities. The Joint Commission is constantly addressing specific areas to help hospitals improve their performance measurement. Effects on Health Care The Joint Commission has a direct effect on the health care system. The standards developed by the Joint Commission help health care organizations improve their care they provide. An accreditation from the Joint Commission is a seal of approval that is an indication to patients that the health care facility focuses on quality care and the safety of their patients. According to Ernest, (2009, p.48) Ã¢â¬Å"evaluating healthcare organizations and inspiring them to excel in providing safe and effective care of the highest quality valueÃ¢â¬ , However, Ernest, (2009, p.48) also argues that The Joint Commission has placed the needs of the facility it inspects above those ofÃ their patients. This is an indication that some of the standards set are burdensome to health care organizations and deemed unnecessary. According to (Doctors lash out, 2007), JCAHO requirements that become implemented are sometimes at odds with the real needs of patients even though they are supposedly driven to en sure patient safety. They take control away from the physician/nurse-patient relationship where it should be. Example of Agency Carrying out Duties An example of an agency carrying out its duties would be the Joint Commission and their mission to improve the health care and safety for patients. Health Care organizations, such as hospitals must comply with federal and state laws to protect the health and safety of their patients. A hospital that provides different services must meet the regulations and standards set for each service provided. The duties are carried out play a role in governments funding toward health care, such as Medicare and Medicaid. These government funded programs set certain standards that hospitals and other health care organizations must adhere to in order to qualify for reimbursement. The Joint Commission has set standards that must be carried out by health care organizations compositions, structure, and daily functions. Basically, a health care organization must carry out their duties because of the responsibility that encompasses the health care system a whole. Conclusion The Joint Commission is a nonprofit organization that is dedicated to improving the quality of health care and the safety of all patients. Their mission is to continuously improve the health care services within the United States. The Joint Commission has helped improve the quality of health care and how itÃ¢â¬â¢s delivered through a series of standards and regulations that health care organizations must comply with in order to meet the accreditation that symbolizes excellence in health care delivery. Through much collaboration with a diverse team, health care and health care safety will continue to improve through the ongoing effort and dedication from the Joint Commission.
Simultaneous Equilibria in the Benzoic Acid Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran Simultaneous Equilibria in the Benzoic Acid Toulene -Water System Introduction: Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic acid with molecular formula, C7H6O2. It appeared as colorless crystalline solid and has a fade, pleasant odor. Benzoic acid is easily available in nature and are used as a precursor to plasticizers, and sodium benzoate. Also, it inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as yeast, mold and bacteria. It also, used as an ointment to treat the fungal diseases such as ringworm and athletes foot. This benzoic acid can be prepared from the bromobenzene, benzyl alcohol and benzyl chloride. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the distribution coefficient (Ã ±) and dimerization constant of the benzoic acid in equilibrium of toluene and water. The distribution coefficient can be determined by using the distributive law which is given by the Nernst in 1891. This law states that distribution of the solute either solid or liquid between two non miscible solvents1. When the solute distributes in the two non miscible solvent at constant temperature, the solute remains in both solvent at the same molecular conditions and then, the concentration of solute in those two non miscible solvents will be equal to the distribution constant, K. In this experiment, the two non miscible solvents are water and toluene. There are three equilibrium states occur in the system used in this experiment such as distribution equilibrium, aqueous phase equilibrium and toluene phase equilibrium. These three equilibria contain benzoic acid (HBz), water (W) and Toluene (T). The distribution occurs as monomer in water and hence, there is monmer-dimer equilibrium occurs in the water and toluene phase2. From the distribution equilibrium, the distribution coefficient, Ã ± can be calculated by, HBz (w)HBz (T) From the aqueous equilibrium phase, the aqueous dissociation constant, Ka is calculated as follows, HBz (w)H+ + Bz From the toluene equilibrium phase, the aqueous dimerization constant, K2 is calculated as follows, 2HBz (T)(HBz)2 The total concentration of benzoic acid in Toluene (CT) and total concentration of benzoic acid in water (Cw) can determine using the formula 1 and 3, they are as follows, Cw= [HBz]w + [H+] CT= [HBz]T + 2[(HBz)2] By plotting the graph using above formula, the total concentrations present in both water and toluene can be determined. Methods: This experiment was conducted by following the procedure given in the laboratory manual by the department of chemistry, Trent University. Related questions Answers: The structure of a dimer of benzoic acid is shown below, O H- O C C O- H O As benzoic acid has phenyl group and it is non polar but water is a polar solvent. Therefore, the carboxyl group in benzoic acid will be harder to form hydrogen bonding with water and decrease the interactions between the benzoic acid molecules. Hence it does not form a dimer with water. In the case of hexane, the hexane is non polar solvent and therefore, the benzoic acid forms dimer with hexane. In the case of methanol, as it has hydrogen bonding, it is considered as polar solvent. When it reacts with benzoic acid, it does not form a dimer of benzoic acid. Furthermore, in the case of propanone, benzoic acid does not form dimer because propanone is a polar solvent. As the titrant solution is base solution, the indicator required to give end point is phenolphthalein. The indicator used in the titration is based on the pH values of the solutions used. In this case, as solution contains benzoic acid and its titrated against NaOH, therefore, the to bring the end point, the phenolphthalein which has pH approximately 9 is used. If the titrant is base solution, then the methyl orange, which has pH 3.5 is used to identify the end point. Results: Table 1 represents the volume of the benzoic acid, toluene and water added in the five solutions in different fractions of the volumes. Solutions Volume of benzoic acid in toluene Solution (ml) Volume of water added (ml) Volume of toluene required to bring total volume to 100 ml (ml) 1 50 50 0 2 40 50 10 3 25 50 25 4 15 50 35 5 5 50 45 Mass of the benzoic acid used = 5.000 g Volume of the NaOH used= 10 ml Calculated concentration of the NaOH = 0.018 M Table 2 represents the titrated volume of the solutions against NaOH and HCl and calculated concentrations of benzoic acid in the Toluene and Water. Solution Number VNaOH (w) (ml) VNaOH(T) (mL) VHCl (T) (mL) CW x 10-3 (M) CT x 10-2 (M) Ã ² Cw (1-Ã ²) CT/Cw (1-Ã ²) 1 5.8 35.7 0.3 4.35 2.70 0.1141 0.00385 7.0130 2 5.4 28.9 0.4 4.05 2.20 0.1181 0.00357 6.1625 3 4.9 16.4 0.8 3.67 1.30 0.1236 0.00322 5.3450 4 3.0 10.7 1.6 2.25 0.92 0.1545 0.00190 4.8421 5 2.2 5.7 5.0 1.65 0.80 0.1773 0.00136 5.8823 Figure 1 represents the plot of Cw (1-Ã ²) versus CT/Cw (1-Ã ²). Data Analysis Calculations: Volume of HBz in water, V1= 0.02 L Volume of NaOH, V2= 0.0058 L Concentration of NaOH, C2= 0.015 M Concentration of HBz, Cw= (0.0058 x 0.015) / 0.02 M = 4.35 x 10-3 M Volume of HBz in water, V1= 0.02 L Volume of NaOH + HCl, V2= 0.036 L Concentration of NaOH, C2= 0.015 M Concentration of HBz, CT= (0.036 x 0.015) / 0.02 M = 2.70 x 10-2 M By using the below formula, the value of Ã ² was calculated, The value of Ka for benzoic acid is 6.46 x 10-5 0.00435 Ã ²2 + 6.46 x 10-5 Ã ² 6.46 x 10-5 Using the quadratic formula, the value of Ã ² is, Ã ² = 0.1141 Calculation of Cw (1-Ã ²) for solution 1, Cw (1-Ã ²)= 0.00435 (1- 0.1141) = 0.00385 Calculation of CT/Cw (1-Ã ²) for solution 1, CT/Cw (1-Ã ²)= (0.0270) / (0.00385) = 7.013 From the figure 1, the value of K2 and Ã ± are as follows, Y = -0.1344 x + 5.8939 Ã ± (intercept) = 0.1344 2Ã ±2K2= 5.8939 K2= (5.8939 ) / (0.03613) = 163.13 M Discussion: The experiment was conducted with careful consideration to get the result as close as to the real value. However, due to the some experimental error involved in this experiment, the calculated values are not close to the literature value. The calculated K2 value is 163.13 L/mol and the alpha value is 0.1344. The literature values are 260 L/mol and 1.49 respectively. Figure 1 represents the plot of Cw (1-Ã ²) versus CT/Cw (1-Ã ²). Based on the graph shown on figure 1, the peak is falling and then raising. When the amount of benzoic acid decreases, the amount of concentration of toluene increases. On the contrary, the value of concentration of benzoic acid (HBz) in water is higher than the concentration of HBz in toluene. In comparison with the literature value, the calculated value has deviated from it. However, the calculated percentage error is 37 %. This is considered as large difference when compared to literature values. These differences between the calculated and literature v alue occurred due to the experimental error. Equipments used in this experiment were used by the previous batch. As the experiment was conducted using the pre used equipments, there might be an error in the contamination. The solution that has made in this experiment has to be mixed well. This will provide a more accurate result. Failure to do this step might have resulted in the failure of result. Also, the burette reading and end point notification are considered one of the errors which lead to inaccurate result. Due to these occurrences, the experiment does not turn successful and have heavily affected the final results. Moreover, the adjustment made in the water bath and less time of keeping the solution in the water bath also might be lead to the error in the final result. Because temperature is ne of the factor affects the dissociation of particles. Furthermore, due to the weather condition (winter), temperature and pressure changes and might not favored to conduct the experim ent. Conclusion: In conclusion, the simultaneous equilibria of benzoic acid presence in the water and toluene solvent was studied by conducting this experiment. In order to get accuracy of result, the precision can be improved by more attention on the experimental procedure and handling the equipments. Also, accurate result can be made by observing the measurements such as notifying the burette reading and end point in a proper manner. References Chemistry Made Simple about Nernst Distribution Lawn; Metallurgy, (2009) Ellison H.R. Simultaneous equilibria in the benzoic acid-benzene-water system, A distribution experiment; 48 (2): 124 (1971). DOI: 10.1021/ed048p124P. Atkins and J. de Paula, AtkinsÃ¢â¬â¢ Physical Chemistry, 8th ed., W. H.Freeman and Co., New York (2006). Department of Chemistry, Laboratory Manual, Experiment G1- Heat Capacity Ratio for Gases, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario(2014)
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s To Kill a Mockingbird, has many stories from ScoutsÃ¢â¬â¢ little town in Alabama that teaches the reader the good and bad sides of the human being. When all these come together, the result is this fantastic novel. One of the stories that stand out is the one when Mrs. Gates and Cecil Jacobs have a conversation in the classroom. They talk about Adolph Hitler and the malicious things he did to the Jewish people. Mrs. Gates tries to tell her students that what he did was wrong in a very firm tone of voice. At this point in the story, the reader feels anger for everything the Nazis did. However, the main point of this passage is to make the reader realize how two-faced Mrs. Gates is. In this novel, Harper Lee implies that humanity should be less hypocritical. When Cecil Jacobs makes his presentation about Adolph Hitler, Mrs. Gates comments about it. She teaches the children in her classroom that what this man did was very wrong since he killed many Jews just because he did not like them. Nevertheless, the reader finds this very paradoxical for the reason that she does not have respect for black-colored-people. Mrs. Gates does not seem to understand the bad example that she is providing to the children she is teaching to. Her hypocrisy does not help to fulfill her role as teacher: to teach and provide the skills and principles children will have to use later in life. The author of this novel has given the reader this story to symbolize the hypocrisy that one finds in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, to show that sometimes and most of the time, the human beings talk a lot but do not look at their own actions or execute what they are teaching. Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s To Kill a Mockingbird shows so many characteristics of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Among thes... ...ould be more honest and less hypocritical. An individual who is a great example of this is Al Gore, the Oscar-Winner for his documentary Ã¢â¬Å"An Inconvenient TruthÃ¢â¬ . He tells audiences the way they should live and how they should manage their life-styles to help save the environment mean while he is riding in style and waists twelve times more electric energy compared to an average family in a year. Harper Lee has used the narrative point of view, characterization and irony to develop a more dramatic effect of hypocrisy between Mrs. Gates and black-colored-people. It is very unfortunate that there are people like Mrs. Gates and Mr. Al Gore in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. For this reason, every individual should strive to be better as a person to make their community a better place to live in and to provide an appropriate example to those who will live in it in the next generations.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Ruined Maid and To His Coy Mistress Both the Ã¢â¬Å"Ruined MaidÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"To His Coy MistressÃ¢â¬ provide us with disturbing images / pictures of love, sex and relationships as I am about to explain. The Ã¢â¬Å"Ruined MaidÃ¢â¬ was written by Thomas Hardy in 1866, during the time when women didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have sex before marriage and they were thrown out of their village for being Ã¢â¬Å"ruinedÃ¢â¬ . The public at that point in history had a very strict view of sex and marriage. They thought that women in particular should never have sex before marriage and they should have everything taken off them for being Ã¢â¬Å"ruinedÃ¢â¬ . They were looked upon as a disgrace to society. The Ã¢â¬Å"Ruined MaidÃ¢â¬ provides us with disturbing images and pictures of love and relationships because the poem is about a woman who has become Ã¢â¬Å"ruinedÃ¢â¬ which means that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s had sex before marriage. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s turned the meaning of this into a good thing while most people thought that it was a bad thing because it meant that the woman had no self-respect and that they were looked upon as prostitutes in a sense. The poem starts with Melia and a...
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Franklin RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"optimism and activism that helped restore the badly shaken confidence of the nationÃ¢â¬ (pg. 467 Out of Many), was addressed in the New Deal, developed to bring about reform to the American standard of living and its low economy. It did not only make an impact during the Great Depression. Although, many of the problems addressed in the New Deal might have been solved, those with the long lasting effect provide enough evidence to illustrate how great a success the role of the New Deal played out in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history to make it what it is today. Although, the growth of business was booming and consumption was extremely high during the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s employers failed to equally distribute the benefits to its industrial workers who got the short end of the stick and did not see any profit from productivity. Since there was no law at the time established on how many hours a person was to work and get paid, employers would overwork and underpay the laborers. This became a major problem because it brought about high unemployment rates, which for laborers, the shortage of jobs meant strong competition among each other for finding and keeping a job, and low wages, which brought down consumption. Several of the policies created to specifically help the jobless during that time were, Emergency Relief Appropriations Act (1935) run by the Public Works Administration (PWA), designed for the construction of public building, roads, dams and other projects. Federal Project No. 1, also run by PWA, gave jobs to writers, musicians, and artist. Ã¢â¬Å"The idea was to provide jobs and thus, stimulate the economy through increased consumer spendingÃ¢â¬ . (pg 469 Out of Many) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The most benefited policies created through the New Deal for employment, one, the Social Security Act (1935), provides Ã¢â¬Å"old-aged pensions and unemployment insurance. A payroll tax on workers and their employers were created a fund from which retirees received monthly pensions after age sixty-five.Ã¢â¬ (pg 470 Out of Many) Second, National Labor Relations Act (1935), also known as the Wagner Act, gave Americans the right to form a union and bargain with their employers for better pay and working conditions. Third, and the most important one of all Fair Labor Standard Act (1938), it established a minimum wage and maximum hours for an employee. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s first order of business as President was to put a halt on the banking system. Congress passed the Emergency Bank Act, which gave him leeway to all banking transactions and foreign exchange.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Food is an integral part of human life providing energy for cellular activities to keep us healthy. According to World Health Organization (2013), healthy nutrition is ingesting an adequate and well balanced diet in relation to the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s dietary needs and when combined with regular physical activities is the cornerstone to good health. A diet containing the right portions of all the five food groups of the Eatwell Plate (figure1 and appendix1 for recommended servings) known as a balanced diet will provide the organic macronutrients including proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and the micronutrients, vitamins and minerals to sustain life. Only ingested carbohydrates, proteins and lipids will count towards total caloric intake and will be digested into monomers like glucose for absorption and assimilation. National Health Service (2012) recommends daily caloric intake of 2500Kcal and 2000Kcal which will be derived from the proteins, lipids and carbohydrate sources in a diet for average adult males and females respectively. Age, sex, health condition and physical activities influence dietary needs. This essay will discuss a balanced diet for an adult including the structure, sources, functions, recommended daily allowance (RDAs), deficiency and excessive effects of the macronutrients. Also the micronutrients and water which are not considered as nutrients will be discussed. THE FOOD PYRAMID [pic]Figure1 (NHS 2011) Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. British Nutrition Foundation (2013), recommends that 47.7% (203g) and 48.5% (275g) of daily energy should come from carbohydrates for females and males respectively with 29g being roughages. Carbohydrates exist naturally or refined as monosaccharides that are reducing sugars. Monosaccharides build the complex carbohydrates, disaccharides and polysaccharides through dehydration synthesis. Monosaccharides have general formula (CH2O)n where Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ determines whether pentose(5Carbons) or hexose (6Carbons). Glucose found in maple syrup, fructose in corn syrup and galactose in honey are hexose-isomers; having the same formula, C6H12O6 but different structures. The disaccharides with the general formula C12H22O11 are sucrose made from fructose and glucose, maltose from two glucose molecules and lactose from galactose and glucose. Sucrose is derived from beet sugar, lactose from milk and maltose from vinegar. The polysaccharides with general formula (C6H10O5)n where 40Ã¢â° ¤nÃ¢â° ¤3000, exist as starch or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) which can be soluble or insoluble. Starch consists of glucose molecules joined by glycosidic bonds. The NSPs include oligosaccharide (raffinose) and cellulose (dietary fibre). Potatoes, yams and cassava are rich in starch and are very digestible. Whole grain cereals, legumes (appendix2), fruits and storage vegetables like asparagus and cabbage are rich in the NSPs. Raffinose is an indigestible trisaccharide of fructose,glucose and galactose with formula C18H32O16. Animal sources of carbohydrates are liver and scallops. Carbohydrates provide sweetness and are the primary source of energy especially for brain and blood cells. Cellular respiration converts glucose monomers into ATP. Fats cannot be oxidised without glucose. Most NSPs are partially digestible or indigestible due to lack of Ã ±-galactosidae (enzyme) in GI Tract. They reduce glycaemia index and plasma cholesterol levels, increase bile acid excretion, promote normal laxation and prevent breast cancer, gallstones, haemorrhoids, and irritable bowel syndrome (Kumar et all 2012). Furthermore, Kumar (2012) concluded that excessive carbohydrates will cause dental decay, kidney damage, stroke, diabetes due to obesity and short term conditions like hyperglycaemia. Carbohydrate deficiency will cause constipation, fatigue, weak immunity, muscle cramps and ketosis; this is very rare as 50g/day of carbohydrate is needed to prevent ketosis. THE DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS TO FORM MALTOSE [pic]Figure2 EQUATION: (C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11 + H2O) (Marshall University 2012) Proteins or polypeptides consist of three to 100000 or more long chains of the organic molecules called amino acids joined together by covalent peptide bonds. A protein of two amino acids is called a dipeptide. There are 20 common forms of amino acids either termed non-essential (synthesised by the liver) and essential that needs to be ingested. Proteins consist of a central carbon atom, a hydrogen atom, amino group (-NH2), Carboxylic group (-COOH) and the variable R group (figure3). The term amino acid is derived from the amino and carboxylic groups that all amino acids have in common. According Kuil (2012), principal sources of proteins are lean meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, cereals, legumes (refer to appendix3), cereals and processed food like low-fat milk. Proteins form about 45% of human body and perform the following seven essential functions: structural (hair, ligaments), contractile (muscles), transport (haemoglobin), metabolic regulation (enzymes), buffering, defence (antibodies) and coordination and control (hormones) (Martini 2006). Haemoglobin transports oxygen and a lack of protein (haemoglobin) can deny vital organs the needed oxygen for metabolism. Protein deficiency can also cause fatigue, anaemia, weak immunity, skin problems, impairment of cognition and mental health problems. Whereas excessive proteins can cause obesity, osteoporosis and kidney stones (Georgetown University 2012). About 15% of an adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ caloric intake should come from protein equivalent to 56g and 46g for male and female respectively (Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention, 2012). DEHYDRATION OF AMINO ACIDS TO FORM DIPEPTIDE PROTEINS [pic]Figure3 (Marshall University 2012) Lipids are made up of an even number of carbon from 12 to 20, oxygen, hydrogen and sometimes traces of phosphorus, sulphur or nitrogen. Lipids are grouped into 4: steroids, phospholipids, waxes and glycerides. Most of the 70 identified lipids are synthesised by the body whereas linoleic (omega6) and alpha-linolenic (omega3) acids are two essential lipids to be ingested. They are mostly insoluble due to the long chain of hydrophobic carbon-carbon end bonded to a short hydrophilic carboxyl group. The double covalent bond, (C=C) determines whether saturated (no C=C) or monounsaturated (1 C=C) or polyunsaturated (2 or more C=C). Glycerides are made up of glycerol bonded to 1 or more fatty acids by dehydration synthesis, triglyceride with 3 fatty acids is the predominant of the lipids (refer figure4). Unsaturated sources of lipids are olive oil, peanut, salmon, halibut and avocados. Saturated sources are butter, sausage and hydrogenated oil. According to British Dietetic Association (2013), adults should consume not more than 20-30g of saturated-fat with 5g or less being trans-fat since saturated lipids are high in cholesterol. The structural lipids form cell membranes. Also fat cushions and protects organs including liver, heart, and kidney, energy source; twice as much as carbohydrates and proteins, thermoregulation (insulation), sex hormones, transport vitamins and monounsaturated fat can decrease cholesterol levels (USA Department of Agriculture, 2010). Excessive consumption of lipids will lead to obesity which is characterised by high BMI as shown in appendix 2, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, colorectal cancer and diabetes, whereas deficiency will result in the body lacking the vital vitamins A,D,E and K (Schenker, 2012). DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS TO FORM TRIGLYCERIDE [pic]Figure4 (Marshall University 2012) The micronutrients, vitamins and minerals are needed in minute quantities. Minerals can be classified as major or trace of which a few are essential including sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, calcium, iodine, etc. (refer to appendix4 for RDAs). According to Higdon and Drake (2011), sources of minerals are plants that derive them from the soil and move on the food chain to the herbivores like cattle that eat them. Spinach, legumes, whole grains, dairy products, red meat, soybeans, salmon, cod, iodised table salt (iodine, sodium, chlorine) and eggs are excellent sources of minerals. According to Whitley and Rolfes (2011), minerals perform the following functions: the electrolytes, sodium, potassium and chlorine transmit nerve impulses, control fluid balance (providing optimum pH for enzyme activities), control blood pressure and relax and contract muscles. Zinc, copper and selenium are antioxidants; they reduce the risk of heart diseases. Iron forms haemoglobin. Sodium and potassium coregulate ATP production. Calcium and phosphorus control blood clotting and together with magnesium build bones, teeth, maintain muscle and nerve cells. Iodine is needed for the production of thyroxin; deficiency will cause goitre. Since some minerals are coenzymes, deficiency will cause malfunctioning cellular activities (digestion, metabolism). Iron deficiency causes anaemia whereas calcium, phosphorus and magnesium (hypocalcaemia) deficiency will cause osteoporosis. Calcium, magnesium and the electrolytes deficiencies will cause weakness, muscle cramps and impaired alertness. Zinc deficiency causes diarrhoea, skin and prostate cancers. Their intake should be balanced with use and excretion as excess may cause Hyperkalaemia (potassium), kidney-stones (calcium) and hypernatremia (sodium). Vitamins are grouped into water soluble (WSV) including C and B complex vitamins; they cannot be stored and therefore, it is imperative to be part of a balanced diet, and fat soluble (FS) including vitamins K,E,D, and A; they can be stored (refer appendix 5 for RDA). Green leafy vegetables (lettuce), oranges, kiwi fruit, avocados, whole grains and cereals, banana, dairy products, liver, poultry, pork, oily fish, eggs, soybeans, chickpeas and nuts are excellent sources of the vitamins (Firth 2011). Vitamin K can be synthesised in the intestine which helps the blood clot whereas Vitamin D can be synthesised by the body using sunlight to help the absorption of calcium and phosphorus (Cranney et al (2010). Vitamins A and C build immunity. Vitamins B1,B2,B3, and biotin help release energy. Vitamin A, niacin and pantothenic acid aid the absorption and use of macronutrients monomers. Vitamin C makes collagen and enhances folate absorption. Vitamin deficiency generally causes weak immunity and osteoporosis (Vitamin D), scurvy (Vitamin C), beriberi (B1), anaemia (B12 and folate) and night blindness (Vitamin A). Excessive amounts of vitamins E and K are usually not harmful but excess A,D and the WSV which can be excreted cause kidney problems and hypercalcaemia (excess D). Excessive vitamin C causes diarrhoea (NHS 2012). In conclusion, spending excessively on supplements and creams as well as engaging in dangerous diets like the Atkins Diet are not necessary. The secret to healthy living is carefully selecting the right proportions of food from the Eatwell plate, drinking enough water in combination with regular exercises. Figure 5 and appendix 6 show functions of water. Consider the positives and negatives when selecting food products such as red meat; rich in protein but high in cholesterol whereas fatty fish enhances calcium absorption. Soybean, liver, green leafy vegetables, whole grains and legumes will provide almost all the nutrients; combine them in your diet in right proportions for optimal hormonal, metabolic, mental and physical functions of the body. It is important to consult a doctor before starting any diet as nutritional needs are affected by health and some medications affect absorption of nutrients. FUNCTIONS OF WATER IN THE BODY [pic]Figure 5 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2013 LIST OF APPENDIXES APPENDIX 1 |FOOD GROUP |SERVINGS PER DAY | |Carbohydrates including bread, pasta, rice, potatoes and other starchy foods |6-10 servings | |Fruits and vegetables |3-5 servings | |Meat, fish, eggs, beans and nuts |2-3 servings | |Milk and dairy foods |2-3 servings | |Food and drinks high in fat and/or in sugar |Use sparingly | University of Michigan Integrative Medicine, 2010 APPENDIX 2: OBESITY AND BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) |BMI |LEVEL OF OBESITY | |Below 18.5 |Underweight | |From 18.5-24.9 |Healthy Range | |From 25-30 |Pre Obese | |Above 30 |Obese | NHS, 2012 APPENDIX 3: FOOD GROUPS AND EXAMPLES |FOOD GROUP |EXAMPLES | |Legumes |Beans, Lentils, Peas, Chickpeas, French beans, Kidney , soybeans, Coco beans etc. | |Whole grains |Barley, Corn, Millet, Oats, Rice, Milo, Wheat | |Green leafy vegetables |Spinach, Broccoli, Lettuce, Cabbage, Mustard green, Kale examples | APPENDIX 4: MINERALS AND THEIR RDA |SYMBLE |SOURCES |RDA | |Na (Sodium) |Table Salt, Sea vegetables, spinach, milk |6g | |Ca (Calcium) |Salmon, Sardine, eggs, dairy products, nuts, oregano |700mg | |K (Potassium) |Spinach, legumes, tomatoes, banana, avocado, whole grains and |3500mg | | |yams | | |P (Phosphate) |Fish, poultry, oats, rice, red meat, |700mg | |Fe (Iron) |Eggs, spinach, shrimps, soybeans, lentils, tomatoes, olives, |M=8.7mg / F=4.8mg | | |tomatoes | | |Mg (Magnesium) |Spinach, soybean, sea vegetables, tomatoes, beans, brazil nuts|M=300mg / F=270mg | |I (Iodine) |Eggs, milk, fish, shellfish, yoghurt, strawberries, iodised |0.14mg | | |salt | | |Se (Selenium) |Cod, salmon, garlic, lamb, cheese, calf liver, barley, brazil |75mcg | | |nuts | | |Zn (Zinc) |Calf liver, spinach, eggs, oats, oyster, lean pork and beef, |M=5.5-9.5mg / F=4-7mg | | |asparagus | | USA Department of Agriculture / Department of Health, 2010 APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS AND THEIR RDAÃ¢â¬â¢S |VITAMIN |SOURCES |RDA | |Retinol (A) |Liver, fish oil, carotenoids, milk fortified |M=0.7mg / F=0.6mg | |Ascorbic acid (C) |Citrus (oranges), kiwi fruit, broccoli |40mg | |Thiamin (B1) |Liver, pork, whole grains and products |M=1mg / F=0.8mg | |Riboflavin (B2) |Liver, eggs, milk, rice, mushrooms |M=1.3mg / F=1.1mg | |Niacin (B3) |Poultry, fish, beef, peanut butter, legumes |M=17mg / F=13mg | |Pyridoxine (B6) |Liver, pork, legumes, fish, whole grains |M=1.4mg / F=1.2mg | |Cobalamin (B12) |Beef, poultry, cod, salmon, cheese, eggs |0.0015mg | |Vitamin E |Vegetable oil, green vegetables, nuts |12mg | |Folate |Broccoli, peas, asparagus, brown rice |0.2mg | |Pantothenic acid |Milk, fruits, veggies, meat, fish, grains |10mg | |Biotin |Cottage cheese, liver, eggs, peanut, grain |300mcg | |Vitamin K |Green vegetables, fruits, nuts |75mg | |Note that Vitamin K can be synthesised in the intestine whereas Vitamin D can be derived salmon, fortified cereals and juices, milk and | |sunlight (No RD A but 15minutes in the sun thrice a week is enough) | USA Department of Agriculture / Department of Health, 2010 APPENDIX 6: RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE FOR WATER |SEX |RDA FOR WATER | |MALE |3.7L with no upper limit increase with exercise to rehydrate | |FEMALE |2.7L with no upper limit increase with exercise to rehydrate and increase intake when | | |breast feeding. | INSTITUTE OF MEDICENE 2004 REFERENCE LIST ONLINE Ã¢Å¾ ¢ British Dietetic Association (2013) Food fact sheet: cholesterol [Online] Available from: http://www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/cholesterol.pdf [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ British Nutrition Foundation (2013) Confusion on fat and heart health [Online]. Available from: http://www.nutrition.org.uk/nutritioninthenews/headlines/fats [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (2012) Nutrition for everyone: Protein [Online] Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/protein.html [Accessed on 19/12/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Cranney et al, (2007) Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health [Online] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18088161?dopt=Abstract [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. (2004) Dietary reference intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulphate. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine. [Online]. Available from: www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-Water-Potassium- [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2010) Dietary reference intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Fil.pdf [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Marshall University (2012) [Online] Available from: http://science.marshall.edu/murraye/alpha_amylase.htm [Accessed on 18/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research [no date] Nutrition and healthy eating: functions of water in the body. [Online] Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/medical/IM00594 [Accessed on 19/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ National Health Service (2011) [Online] Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/eatwell-plate.aspx [Accessed on 17/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ National Health Service (2011) [Online] Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/3215.aspx?CategoryID=51 [Accessed on 17/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ National Health Service (2012) [Online] Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/1126.aspx?CategoryID=51&SubCategoryID=164 [Accessed on 17/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ United States of America. Department of Agriculture/Department of Health and Human Services (2010), Dietary guidelines for Americans, Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. [Online] Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf [Accessed: 19/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ University of Michigan Integrative Medicine (2010) Healing foods pyramid [Online] Available from: http://www.med.umich.edu/umim/food-pyramid/fats.htm [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ World Health Organisation (2013) [Online] Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/nutrition/en/ [Accessed: 17/02/2013]. ONLINE JOURNALS Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Kumar et all (2012) Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 52(10). [Online] Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2010.512671?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed. [Accessed on 23/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Schenker S. (2012). UK recommendations for dietary fat: should they be reassessed in light of the recent FAO/WHO recommendations? Nutrition Bulletin, 37(1), pp. 37-46. [Online] Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01946.x/full [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. BOOKS Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Firth L. (2011) Nutrition and diet. Issues 205, Cambridge: Independence Educational Press. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Higdon, J. and Drake, V. J. (2011) An evidenced-based approach to vitamins and minerals: health benefits and intake recommendation. 2nd Edition. New York: Thieme. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Kuil W. A D. (2012) Sources of dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population, British Journal of Nutrition, 108 (10), pp. 1897-1903. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Martini F. H. (2006) Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. 7th Edition. San Francisco: Pearson Education. pp. 39-58. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Whitney, E. and Rolfes S. R. (2011) Understanding nutrition. 12th Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth. BIBLIOGRAPHY ONLINE Ã¢Å¾ ¢ British Dietetic Association (2013) Food fact sheet: sugar [Online] Available from: http://www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/Sugar.pdf [Accessed on 20/02/02013] Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Georgetown University (2012) Proteins: what does it do? [Online] Available from: http://www.georgetown.edu/admin/auxiliarysrv/dining/nutrition/protein.html [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Stoner, L et al (2012) Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes. [Online] Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3354392/ [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. BOOKS Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Blomhoff R, et al. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants. British Journal of Nutrition. 2006; 96. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ New Zealand. Ministry of Health (2003), Food and nutrition guideline for healthy adults: a background paper, Wellington: Ministry of Health. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Rolfes, S. R. et al (2009) Understanding normal and clinical nutrition. 8th Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth. ONLINE VIDEOS Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Dairy: essential nutrition or health saboteur? Ã¢â¬â Keon, J. (2011) [Online video]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cp9MwjW5QX0 [Accessed on 20/02/2013]. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Good nutrition made easy: how to grow a healthy adult Ã¢â¬â Davidson, L. (2012) [Online video]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qAeAzreESg [Accessed on 20/02/2013].
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
They atomic number 18 amazing, they argon unique and innocent. However, because of the devastating demoralization happening in the friendship straight off, they ar the anes becoming the victims of the station of the society today. Certainly, children ar the ones who ar becoming the main victims of the amic equal changes occurring today. It is undeni suitable that the situation plaguing the late ones today is indeed alarming, thus requiring upkeep from the governing involved in the process of face the utter changes. The y show uph argon the believe of todays society.This line has goodly been recognized by umteen modify as well as ontogenesis countries worldwide. This is the primary reason why it is unmingled that government organizations ar trying to decorate their best possible available assets to the instruction of the young times. However, not all of the members of the young generation actually quarter to accommodate an access on the s supporter program s. just ab forbidden of them, who belong to the minority groups of the society, are the ones who are in need of these programs. Yet, they are the ones who consider lesser access on the said governmental set-ups.As a result, young muckle who get charged with juvenile dereliction cases are increasing every year. The concomitant that they imbibe nothing better to do than to simply stay at infrastructure or wander more or less in the stets, they fetch the target of numerous gangs that are encouraging youths to join them in their wrongful acts If not, many of these youths bring forth several(prenominal) chaotic movements that grumpyly disturb the immaculate community. These youths certainly need help. However, one sad occupation is cosmosness confronted by the subject generation of children and youths.The person-to-person schooling in general aspect of humanity is being hindered by the challenges of juvenile delinquency. Most of the youths are being misled by outside and ruinous influences such as vices manifesting in gambling, penal doses, and bad companies. Most of the youths nowadays are falling into the pitfalls of becoming addictive to drug intoxication, alcoholism, and smoking. Others are sacrificing their educational pursuit for personal generatement to influences of bad companies such as gangs and groupies resulting to violence and companionable aggression.In addition, close to move of the generations of youths and children nowadays are falling as victims of social violence such as bullying, gang aggression, rape, harassment, and other abuses. Thus, the children and youths of the present generations are being misled to the adversities of the juvenile delinquency. In a relative scene of report-narration entitled atrocious dump, as written by Jonathan Kozov, the situation of the society today that addresses the problems with the youth and the ship canal by which they are involved in the pledge issueent issues of social downfall o f morale.The story of Kozol, he portrayed the situation in a more actual impression that related the present problems with the problems of the children on one particular community that he visited for observation. by this story, the author made it clear that heretofore though children are innocent, it is undeniable that with the considerable influences that they receive from the society that they live in at present affects the behavior that they feature towards the life sentence that they are facing in the future.The worse case to consider is that most of the children who are negatively influenced by the social carcasss are becoming juvenile delinquents true, with regards this fixings of the truth, the rate of those respective(prenominal)s becoming involved in juvenile delinquency issues continue to amplify every year. Nevertheless, society has already started pathetic to address this alarming social problem of juvenile delinquency with the youths and children.Concerned cit izens and community groups have already established non-profit organization to aid recovering victims and ex-delinquent in the search for the proper(a) way of developing themselves. These organizations have helped many youths and children of this present generation in the convalescence from the horror and adversities of the former delinquent life in the aim of realizing the full probable as significant and relevant individuals at bottom the society aiming for their personal and humanities development in the future.Peer Pressure and the Youth Influences sightedness the sample narration that Jonathan Kozol presented by the context of the story on the Amazing Grace, it could be observed that he pointed out that there are several points of context needing attention with regards the capability of the entire society to influence the young minds of the younger generation trying to make the best out of their future does yet. (Kozol, 13) THE researchers felt that they had it all evalu ate out. They had intently examined 200 children from their infancy through adolescence.They analyzed the parents, the home environs and the electric pig of each child. Then they predicted which of these children would become ingenious adults. It seemed simplea happy puerility under a pleasant family environment would produce a happy adult. subsequently waiting till the children became 30 historic period of age, they re-interviewed them. Furthermore, as the children ripen up, the young adults become more prone to different influences from the environment. The masses that they deal with everyday become the root word of the different values that they take in for themselves as they personally grow up.There are at least four major reasons why young people develop in the behavior that they grow up with. These four major dimensions of development could be noted as follows The family and the parents usually, the young children get the examples of acts from their parents which in turn they carry in themselves as they grow up. It is through this particular process that the young ones are able to comprehend with the impact that their parents are making on them as young adults. The surroundings and the Society As the young children grow older, the impact of the people living around them aside from their family members begins to leave an impact on their personality. True, the situation has been much more be by the psychologists that the arrange of the family and the society differ from each other. As for a fact, the dowry of effect that the society makes on the individual is far much higher than that of the effect of the family with development of the youngsters. The psychological need for toleration young ones aim to be legitimate especially if they have the capacity of being recognized.This is the reason why they usually take sides on those who they seem are able to recognize their capabilities. The decision making system of the youngsters They are usu ally deciding in different ways, most of the time, confusion gets in the way. This is the reason why it is very essential that they are given fine attention as they are being help with the personal development difficulties that they are dealing with at present. To understand the four dimensions better, the draw shall show the necessary illustration to inform better